April 25, 2018, 10:10 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07044 UAE Dirham
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.03414 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3869 Argentine Peso
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06531 Brazilian Real
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.01562 Euro
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.89893 Gambian Dalasi
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.4519 Honduras Lempira
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1 Philippine Peso = 20.47315 Korean Won
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1 Philippine Peso = 6.25738 Kazakhstan Tenge
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.95589 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.29728 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.79977 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15492 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.75105 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64212 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29862 Maldives Rufiyaa
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.35542 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07476 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23032 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88531 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59455 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15025 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02693 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02661 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00738 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06167 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06232 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21711 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06525 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 105.81128 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06981 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07297 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.17426 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.19889 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07192 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14921 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25758 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34621 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1621 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01369 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42589 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.33679 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.79785 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 382.92676 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16782 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.87687 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2317 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60153 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04709 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04287 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07793 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12937 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56552 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.65171 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50153 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.73264 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54066 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 154.48792 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1138.30075 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 436.67051 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02071 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04846 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.24242 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05178 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.24242 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.85386 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79287 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23169 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.53011 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.94093 Zimbabwe dollar

Direct-seeding to reduce rice production costs

Direct-seeding, which uses pre-germinated seeds sown directly on the soil surface, reduces high labor costs in rice farming according to scientists at the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice).

This is because direct-seeded rice matures earlier than transplanted rice, lowering labor requirements and expenses for crop establishment and the time spent on crop management. It can be done two ways. 

“The dry direct-seeding method is more commonly used in rainfed and upland areas,” said PhilRice agronomist Myrna Malabayabas. “It involves sowing of pre-germinated seeds on dry soil surface and then incorporating the seeds either by ploughing or harrowing.

“Wet direct-seeding, on the other hand, is practiced during dry and wet seasons in irrigated and rainfed areas. It is done either through broadcasting or drilling pre-germinated seeds with the use of a drum-seeder on a wet, well-leveled paddy,” Malabayabas added.

For direct-seeding, PhilRice recommends three varieties that are early maturing, resistant to drought, and can attain a maximum yield of at least 6 tons per hectare. These are NSIC Rc272 (Sahod Ulan 2) which matures 110 days after sowing and yields 6.4 t/ha; NSIC Rc348 (Sahod Ulan 12), maturity at 103 days after sowing (5 t/ha maximum yield); and NSIC Rc346 (Sahod Ulan 11), which matures 105 days after sowing and yields 6.2 t/ha.

PhilRice has determined that P4.42 is spent on labor cost for every kilogram of rice on transplanting while P3.28 is spent on direct-seeding. In direct-seeding method, farmers can save up to P1.14 on labor cost for every kilogram of rice they produce and 23-man days for every hectare of their field.

According to the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), direct seeding is more rapidly and easily planted, less labor intensive, andmore conducive to mechanization. It alsoconsumes less irrigation water, matures earlier, and has fewer methane emissions. 

Overall analysis of 77 published studies showed that various methods of direct seeding reduced the cost of production compared with conventional transplanting methods.

IRRI is promoting Direct-Seeded Rice (DSR) technology in South and Southeast Asia and launched this month the DSR Consortium (DSRC) focusing on improving mechanized and precise direct-seeding practices to help farmers maximize its full benefits.

“DSR is a more resource-efficient, climate-resilient, and sustainable alternative agricultural system to manual transplanting but gaps are still present,” said Virender Kumar, IRRI senior scientist and DSRC coordinator. “Many agronomic DSR practices have become inefficient because of lack of mechanization, precision application, and proper education, hence the prevalent preference for manual systems.”

“This consortium will strengthen collaboration between public and private sectors and eventually will lead to availability of resource-efficient and sustainable production practices and technologies not just for relevant business entities but also the small holder farmers across Asia,” said Jacqueline Hughes, IRRI deputy director general for research. “We want to encourage a richer exchange of ideas, knowledge, and technologies to overcome key constraints in this initiative.”

In direct seeding, weeds germinate simultaneously with rice due to the absence of water that suppresses weed growth. Among the ways to manage weeds are narrow spacing and uniform plant population, appropriate water depth and timing, use of weed-competitive varieties and herbicide rotation and combination.

Weeds can be controlled through stale seedbed technique used in field with large weed seed bank. It can greatly reduce the weeds because of the two-month fallow period between harvest and sowing, which allows weeds to emerge before they are killed.

Herbicides may be used depending on the type of weeds. No single herbicide can control all weeds in the rice crop.

Another method is weeding by hand or by machine. Weeds are practically impossible to control by manual weeding by hand. However, one or two spot hand weeding can be done to remove weeds that escape herbicide application and to prevent weed seed production and the accumulation of weed seeds in the soil. In mechanical weeding, motorized cono and other hand weeders can be used. 
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