November 25, 2017, 2:35 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07254 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.22066 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03521 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34299 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02592 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03516 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03951 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.60589 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03253 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00746 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.51185 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01976 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02656 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13552 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06373 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01976 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27914 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20568 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 395.49586 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03947 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0251 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01934 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.5162 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13038 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 58.75346 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.09502 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01976 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.82714 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42146 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.5079 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12329 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94607 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.26118 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25918 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34868 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53457 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01656 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04139 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01481 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01481 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.09104 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92967 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 177.69657 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1449 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.07922 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15426 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46501 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12517 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.22145 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.16041 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.6535 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0693 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27625 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.03437 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 696.06876 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03813 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47234 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01397 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20192 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03576 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37669 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.67207 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.28586 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.77953 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.38305 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00596 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0162 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.52213 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 164.26314 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.7906 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.03635 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.46247 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27292 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06023 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01226 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02699 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18541 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34526 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.01442 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.92612 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.20229 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15888 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.91426 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.68451 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30047 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.14757 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36633 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0813 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27483 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.03279 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60352 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16042 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04563 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02867 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0076 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01976 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06392 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06337 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07685 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0697 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.98933 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07516 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07679 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.15428 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.47807 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07408 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15686 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26162 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13157 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16365 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02658 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01482 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43868 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 150.13829 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 11.00356 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 406.44806 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17286 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.17345 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27485 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6448 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04877 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04522 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07781 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13097 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5918 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.15251 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53121 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.55275 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01976 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57349 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 159.22561 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19705 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 448.93324 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.09581 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05077 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.85875 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05334 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.88937 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.96543 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.93678 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27485 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.51877 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.14935 Zimbabwe dollar

The Concept of Dread

“Life on this earth has often been disturbed by dreadful events.” [French naturalist Georges Cuvier, Revolutions on the Surface of the Globe, 1812]

Humankind's doomsday. Take your pick:

(1)     The Flood. “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, on the seventeenth day of the second month—on that day all the springs of the great deep burst forth, and the floodgates of the heavens were opened. And rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights.” [Genesis 7:11 (New International Version)]

(2)     Robot Apocalypse. “According to our estimate, 47 percent of total US employment is in the high risk category, meaning that associated occupations are potentially automatable over some unspecified number of years, perhaps a decade or two...As industrial robots are becoming more advanced, with enhanced senses and dexterity, they will be able to perform a wider scope of non-routine manual tasks. From a technological capabilities point of view, the vast remainder of employment in production occupations is thus likely to diminish over the next decades.” [Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, The Future Of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs To Computerisation? September 17, 2013; http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf]

(3)     “Carrington Event” in 1859. “As electronic technologies have become more sophisticated and more embedded into everyday life, they have also become more vulnerable to solar activity. On Earth, power lines and long-distance telephone cables might be affected by auroral currents, as happened in 1989. Radar, cell phone communications, and GPS receivers could be disrupted by solar radio noise. Experts who have studied the question say there is little to be done to protect satellites from a Carrington-class flare. In fact, a recent paper estimates potential damage to the 900-plus satellites currently in orbit could cost between $30 billion and $70 billion.” [A Super Solar Flare; https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/06may_carringtonflare]

(4)     Food Supply Chain Apocalypse. “Food insecurity will be one of the largest risks to global society over the next 10 years. The world’s resources are under huge stress and the issue of food security is receiving growing attention. Food security is a situation where ‘all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life’. The average person needs 2,300 calories per day to live a healthy and active life. On average, in wealthy nations there is enough for each person to eat an additional 1,100 calories, while in low-income countries, national food supplies fall 100 calories short.” [Lloyd’s of London, Feast or famine: Business and Insurance Implications of Food Safety and Security]

(5)     A super storm. A massive hurricane is only one of the many incidents that may occur at any given time. [Sgt. 1st Class Christopher Dehart, https://www.army.mil/article/100871/Hurricane__Z__makes_landfall__Max_Brooks_joins_Army_North_s_hurricane_rehearsal/]

(6)     Pandemic. “If the government isn’t prepared to deal with the next big hurricane, or earthquake, or terrorist attack, how then can we expect anything but confusion, communication gaps, and systemic breakdown when facing something as horrific as a zombie outbreak? Claims of a streamlined, vigilant post 9/11 government fall flat when compared to (James F.) Miskel’s mountain of hard evidence and reasoned insights. Unfortunately, it seems clear that when the dead rise to hunt the living we are all, quite literally, on our own.” [http://zombieresearchsociety.com/archives/2322]

(7)     Terrorism, jihadism, ISIS, etc. “The nature of terrorism has changed dramatically in the last thirty years. In 1980, only two of 64 active terrorist groups had an overtly religious self-identification or agenda. By 2004, of 113 active terrorist groups, about half had explicitly religious self-identities and motivations (an assessment that depends on a narrow definition of religion and is probably conservative). More importantly, the attacks with the greatest number of casualties have been conducted by religious groups or individuals associated with religious groups. Despite the fact that such groups differ widely in their cultural contexts, as a scholar I find that they exhibit the characteristics of a thought system that biblical scholars call 'apocalypticism,' which has been around for thousands of years. However, apocalypticism in and of itself can give rise to either peace or violence. Those apocalyptic groups that do commit violence accept the basic apocalyptic worldview that others do, plus a steady set of other propositions, resulting in a reality map that I call 'radical apocalypticism'.” [Frances L. Flannery, Understanding Apocalyptic Terrorism: Countering the radical mindset]

(8)     The great dying. "One-third of all reef-building corals, a third of all freshwater mollusks, a third of sharks and rays, a quarter of all mammals, a fifth of all reptiles, and a sixth of all birds are headed toward oblivion.” [Elizabeth Kolbert, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History; https://us.macmillan.com/excerpt?isbn=9780805092998]

Apocalypse no. 9. Bloodsuckers. “We tried to turn away; but still,  Above we heard her sorrow thrill; And those that slept, they dreamed of ill, And dreadful things: Of skies grown red with rending flames, And shuddering hills that cracked their frames; Of twilights foul with wings” [Conrad Aiken, The Vampire, https://www.poets.org/poetsorg/anthology/vampire-poems] What is yet to come?

“After the two parts which I have already explained, at the left of Our Lady and a little above, we saw an Angel with a flaming sword in his left hand; flashing, it gave out flames that looked as though they would set the world on fire; but they died out in contact with the splendour that Our Lady radiated towards him from her right hand: pointing to the earth with his right hand, the Angel cried out in a loud voice: ‘Penance, Penance, Penance!'. And we saw in an immense light that is God: ‘something similar to how people appear in a mirror when they pass in front of it' a Bishop dressed in White ‘we had the impression that it was the Holy Father'. Other Bishops, Priests, men and women Religious going up a steep mountain, at the top of which there was a big Cross of rough-hewn trunks as of a cork-tree with the bark; before reaching there the Holy Father passed through a big city half in ruins and half trembling with halting step, afflicted with pain and sorrow, he prayed for the souls of the corpses he met on his way; having reached the top of the mountain, on his knees at the foot of the big Cross he was killed by a group of soldiers who fired bullets and arrows at him, and in the same way there died one after another the other Bishops, Priests, men and women Religious, and various lay people of different ranks and positions. Beneath the two arms of the Cross there were two Angels each with a crystal aspersorium in his hand, in which they gathered up the blood of the Martyrs and with it sprinkled the souls that were making their way to God.” [The third part of the secret revealed at the Cova da Iria-Fatima, on 13 July 1917; http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20000626_message-fatima_en.html]
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