February 22, 2018, 3:15 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07045 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04297 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03415 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38059 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02443 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03415 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03837 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59409 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0304 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00723 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.58872 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02533 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13159 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06235 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2325 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18295 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 384.03989 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03832 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02429 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.018 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.42605 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12152 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.88202 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.87186 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.71801 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39493 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.3921 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11601 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94226 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17652 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24369 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33858 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52177 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01557 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03825 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01371 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01377 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08533 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89967 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.74122 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14073 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.9296 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15011 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45024 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11584 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.216 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.85824 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 261.23153 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06714 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24329 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.71245 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 713.12103 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9248 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.40936 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01359 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0619 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9413 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.3061 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 77.09572 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.62709 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.26453 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.55496 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01573 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.12565 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.52676 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.96605 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.97621 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.45904 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22463 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05848 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0119 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02544 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17647 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31853 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95396 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.47477 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.90946 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15451 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.71398 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62536 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29868 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.76098 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35911 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07494 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22327 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88663 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59477 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15035 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98703 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02611 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00738 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06229 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0629 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11989 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06472 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.82716 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06982 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07256 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.0862 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.12737 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07193 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14866 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2582 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34501 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15536 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02534 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01372 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42597 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.36485 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.78074 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 381.75523 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16785 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.87876 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22325 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60368 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04586 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0428 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07262 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12717 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55966 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.06541 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51746 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.67197 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54556 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 156.62766 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 478.3426 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 435.71839 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98465 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04817 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.20986 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05179 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.20986 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.85248 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79474 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22325 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.5492 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.94226 Zimbabwe dollar

Divided we fall

OUR public choice, though sovereign, is limited by the quality of candidates, the immaturity as well as malnutrition among the electorate, and foreign intervention, making the Rizalian Republic an ochlocracy.

This Archipelago, after all, is a place where a bad karaoke singer can get killed if his rendition of Frank Sinatra’s “My Way” irritates the bar patrons and fiesta crowds. [www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/philippines/7199022/My-Way-death...

Be that as it may, Filipinos also hold the world records in:

The largest collection of fast-food restaurant toys. Percival R. Lugue (of Apalit, Pampanga) owns 10,000 items.

The largest board game tournament. A total of 43,157 participants played chess in Cebu.

The largest collection of jigsaw puzzles. Georgina Gil-Lacuna (Tagaytay City) has 1,028 different sets.

“The largest human cross was achieved by 13,266 participants at an event organized by the University of Santo Tomas (Philippines) in Manila, Philippines, on 9 March 2011. The cross was in two colors, black and white.” [www.guinnessworldrecords.de/world-records/largest-human-cross]

The most trees planted simultaneously at multiple locations through TreeVolution: Greening MindaNOW, held on September 26, 2014. [www.minda.gov.ph/index.php/news/121-guinness-world-record-for-the-most-t...

In our reflections of the Filipinos, we may discern that some patterns could have been set more than 100 years ago. According to Jose Rizal:

“Every trader sells his merchandise at the price he likes. The Chinese sells his tinapa sometimes two for a centavo, and at other times, three for two centavos. If we tolerate this practice of the Chinese dealer, why should we not tolerate that of the curate-trader of scapulars?” [Pensamientos de un Filipino, Madrid, 1883-1885]

“But if the capitalist knows how to grease and through offerings to appease the gods and render them favorable, he has already accomplished much.” [“Filipino Farmers,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 21-23, March 1889] Shades of Kidapawan?

“There is a very mistaken idea about the Filipino people. The writers who have described them slandered them, because in depicting them they have taken as models their servants, that multitude of unfortunate devils without country, education, or home, who go to the great capital cities. They (Spanish writers/journalists) have described those ridiculous characters who swarm like parasites around the offices and the sidewalks (overseas Filipino workers/job applicants). They do not know that the educated class who, seeing so much mud and poverty, shut themselves in isolation. Neither do they know the uncontaminated mass of the people in the provinces, as they neither know their spirit nor their language nor their sufferings.” [The Truth for All,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 81-85, May 31, 1889]

Rizal also commented: “However, from all this regrettable incident, it seems it can be inferred, like the mephitic exhalation of a heap of garbage, the desire not to do justice but to kill the criminal; something sanguinary, inhuman, base, something ferocious.” [“Philippines Affairs,” La Solidaridad, Volume II, pp. 93-95, April 30, 1890] Which “regrettable incident” at present applies? The confrontation between the partisans of two candidates in front of that bank in Metro Manila?

Disasters caused by moral hazards! Mitigation. Adaptation. Risk reduction. Perhaps we should draw inspiration from our records of leadership. Like the speech of President Carlos P. Garcia speech on the occasion of the ROTC Field Day, February 20, 1960 (read by Defense Secretary Alejo Santos): “The defense of the fatherland is incumbent upon every citizen. Of our multifarious civic responsibilities the duty to take up arms in defense of our sovereign rights must take precedence...Those of you who have done some readings in the development of constitutional government must know the historical fact that survival of democracy vis-a-vis determined efforts of despots to suppress human freedom and dignity depends mainly on equally determined efforts on the part of lovers of freedom to prepare for self-defense.”

Nationalism “promotes healthier relations with other nations since in asserting our national sovereignty in international affairs, we bring to the attention of the whole world the fact of the equality of nations be they large or small.” [http://www.gov.ph/1960/02/20/speech-of-president-carlos-p-garcia-speech-...

And from Jovito R. Salonga’s “A Journey of Struggle and Hope,” what can we learn about political careers? The future Senate President decided to take up law and enter politics after seeing Speaker Manuel Roxas in action at the Pasig glorietta discussing the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. But decades later: “After my retirement from partisan politics and government service in 1992, I felt as though I had been liberated.” [Quezon City: U.P. Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy, 2001, pp. xv, 7]

From Renato Constantino’s “The Nationalist Alternative,” we find:

The “three basic goals of nationalism” are: “economic independence, political sovereignty and a democratic society.” (Note to the Second Edition, April 9, 1984, p. v)

Legitimization is a “constant preoccupation of governments.” (p. 5)

“A nationalist administration would mobilize the creative energies of the people to better develop the productive forces of society to serve the needs of the majority.” (p. 7)

The Philippines and 96 other members of the United Nations sponsored in 1974 the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States.

“All Philippine administrations, and also their conventional opposition, have been to a large extent captives of the development concepts laid down by the advanced capitalist countries and their transnational corporations.” (p. 26)

“The fate of Third World countries like the Philippines must be decided by the people, not by the elite.” [Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies, 1984, p. 28] By Burkeian estimates, only five percent of the elites form the ruling class in the Philippines. [Pacifico Agabin, “The Ruling Class and the Political Process,” Annual Lecture on the 57th Anniversary of the Civil Liberties Union, Club Filipino, Pasig, Metro Manila, November 30, 1994]

Dynasties? Duh!
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