October 22, 2017, 9:41 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07128 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18168 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0346 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33849 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02474 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03455 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03882 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59705 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03208 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00732 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.78397 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02639 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13315 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06146 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26213 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20042 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 388.58696 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03878 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02429 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01906 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.12442 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1285 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 56.61879 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.99029 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.81172 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42217 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.44992 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12229 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.91751 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21396 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25699 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34161 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52232 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01642 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03984 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01474 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01481 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08518 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.91421 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 174.2236 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14253 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.96933 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15143 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45421 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12329 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.19002 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.04988 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 262.46118 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06762 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26145 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.63199 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 665.74146 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03707 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.46487 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01373 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19732 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00019 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.33191 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 78.26087 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.11083 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.46894 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.96991 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00585 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01592 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.49204 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 160.69488 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.21972 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98137 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.29173 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26378 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05918 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01204 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02652 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18258 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33463 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.00621 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.37811 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.47671 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15597 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.84045 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65703 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30221 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.90062 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36633 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08199 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26335 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.8323 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58773 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15441 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0099 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02778 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00746 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06268 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06206 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03901 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06957 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 109.45264 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07337 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0755 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.11374 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.1349 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07279 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15088 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26054 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12926 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15816 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0264 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01475 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43102 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 147.90373 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.81134 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 402.56018 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16984 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.99573 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26335 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64344 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04808 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04338 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07108 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12963 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58637 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.42003 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51417 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.78804 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5722 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 155.95885 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1936 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 440.93556 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02426 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04922 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.76747 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05241 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.69488 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.94759 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.85151 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26339 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 100.72787 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.02446 Zimbabwe dollar

Divided we fall

OUR public choice, though sovereign, is limited by the quality of candidates, the immaturity as well as malnutrition among the electorate, and foreign intervention, making the Rizalian Republic an ochlocracy.

This Archipelago, after all, is a place where a bad karaoke singer can get killed if his rendition of Frank Sinatra’s “My Way” irritates the bar patrons and fiesta crowds. [www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/philippines/7199022/My-Way-death...

Be that as it may, Filipinos also hold the world records in:

The largest collection of fast-food restaurant toys. Percival R. Lugue (of Apalit, Pampanga) owns 10,000 items.

The largest board game tournament. A total of 43,157 participants played chess in Cebu.

The largest collection of jigsaw puzzles. Georgina Gil-Lacuna (Tagaytay City) has 1,028 different sets.

“The largest human cross was achieved by 13,266 participants at an event organized by the University of Santo Tomas (Philippines) in Manila, Philippines, on 9 March 2011. The cross was in two colors, black and white.” [www.guinnessworldrecords.de/world-records/largest-human-cross]

The most trees planted simultaneously at multiple locations through TreeVolution: Greening MindaNOW, held on September 26, 2014. [www.minda.gov.ph/index.php/news/121-guinness-world-record-for-the-most-t...

In our reflections of the Filipinos, we may discern that some patterns could have been set more than 100 years ago. According to Jose Rizal:

“Every trader sells his merchandise at the price he likes. The Chinese sells his tinapa sometimes two for a centavo, and at other times, three for two centavos. If we tolerate this practice of the Chinese dealer, why should we not tolerate that of the curate-trader of scapulars?” [Pensamientos de un Filipino, Madrid, 1883-1885]

“But if the capitalist knows how to grease and through offerings to appease the gods and render them favorable, he has already accomplished much.” [“Filipino Farmers,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 21-23, March 1889] Shades of Kidapawan?

“There is a very mistaken idea about the Filipino people. The writers who have described them slandered them, because in depicting them they have taken as models their servants, that multitude of unfortunate devils without country, education, or home, who go to the great capital cities. They (Spanish writers/journalists) have described those ridiculous characters who swarm like parasites around the offices and the sidewalks (overseas Filipino workers/job applicants). They do not know that the educated class who, seeing so much mud and poverty, shut themselves in isolation. Neither do they know the uncontaminated mass of the people in the provinces, as they neither know their spirit nor their language nor their sufferings.” [The Truth for All,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 81-85, May 31, 1889]

Rizal also commented: “However, from all this regrettable incident, it seems it can be inferred, like the mephitic exhalation of a heap of garbage, the desire not to do justice but to kill the criminal; something sanguinary, inhuman, base, something ferocious.” [“Philippines Affairs,” La Solidaridad, Volume II, pp. 93-95, April 30, 1890] Which “regrettable incident” at present applies? The confrontation between the partisans of two candidates in front of that bank in Metro Manila?

Disasters caused by moral hazards! Mitigation. Adaptation. Risk reduction. Perhaps we should draw inspiration from our records of leadership. Like the speech of President Carlos P. Garcia speech on the occasion of the ROTC Field Day, February 20, 1960 (read by Defense Secretary Alejo Santos): “The defense of the fatherland is incumbent upon every citizen. Of our multifarious civic responsibilities the duty to take up arms in defense of our sovereign rights must take precedence...Those of you who have done some readings in the development of constitutional government must know the historical fact that survival of democracy vis-a-vis determined efforts of despots to suppress human freedom and dignity depends mainly on equally determined efforts on the part of lovers of freedom to prepare for self-defense.”

Nationalism “promotes healthier relations with other nations since in asserting our national sovereignty in international affairs, we bring to the attention of the whole world the fact of the equality of nations be they large or small.” [http://www.gov.ph/1960/02/20/speech-of-president-carlos-p-garcia-speech-...

And from Jovito R. Salonga’s “A Journey of Struggle and Hope,” what can we learn about political careers? The future Senate President decided to take up law and enter politics after seeing Speaker Manuel Roxas in action at the Pasig glorietta discussing the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. But decades later: “After my retirement from partisan politics and government service in 1992, I felt as though I had been liberated.” [Quezon City: U.P. Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy, 2001, pp. xv, 7]

From Renato Constantino’s “The Nationalist Alternative,” we find:

The “three basic goals of nationalism” are: “economic independence, political sovereignty and a democratic society.” (Note to the Second Edition, April 9, 1984, p. v)

Legitimization is a “constant preoccupation of governments.” (p. 5)

“A nationalist administration would mobilize the creative energies of the people to better develop the productive forces of society to serve the needs of the majority.” (p. 7)

The Philippines and 96 other members of the United Nations sponsored in 1974 the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States.

“All Philippine administrations, and also their conventional opposition, have been to a large extent captives of the development concepts laid down by the advanced capitalist countries and their transnational corporations.” (p. 26)

“The fate of Third World countries like the Philippines must be decided by the people, not by the elite.” [Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies, 1984, p. 28] By Burkeian estimates, only five percent of the elites form the ruling class in the Philippines. [Pacifico Agabin, “The Ruling Class and the Political Process,” Annual Lecture on the 57th Anniversary of the Civil Liberties Union, Club Filipino, Pasig, Metro Manila, November 30, 1994]

Dynasties? Duh!
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