June 25, 2018, 3:38 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06901 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02912 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03401 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5072 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02524 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03345 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03758 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57159 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03155 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00712 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.90079 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1289 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07111 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28053 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19402 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 376.17437 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03754 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02493 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01856 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.99061 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12218 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 54.75385 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.57591 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.77772 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41526 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.33615 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12016 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92728 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1963 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25225 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33484 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51146 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01612 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03918 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01416 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08979 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87956 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 169.07178 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14072 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.87599 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14741 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44878 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11882 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24803 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.23224 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.43067 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06764 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27568 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.24728 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 798.38407 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03119 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.45509 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01333 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06417 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.89121 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28183 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.00526 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.92522 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.91094 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.86622 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00568 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01541 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.38595 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.00451 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.292 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98572 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.74709 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25254 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05728 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01166 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02548 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1786 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3177 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98891 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.98647 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.97896 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15183 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.67042 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65295 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29256 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.4053 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37584 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07518 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25239 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.72679 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59207 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15205 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03401 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02719 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00723 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06134 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0609 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.28222 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06966 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.55769 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06839 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07509 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.18236 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.96073 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07046 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1479 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25235 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33738 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16635 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02551 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01417 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41725 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.94363 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.72905 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 394.98309 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16441 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.67644 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25202 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61856 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04882 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04333 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08786 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12682 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56924 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.63435 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49267 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.51597 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01879 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59451 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 147.50094 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1499.4363 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 430.10147 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07159 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0488 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05073 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.56614 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92165 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.69466 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25241 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 97.51033 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.80008 Zimbabwe dollar

Divided we fall

OUR public choice, though sovereign, is limited by the quality of candidates, the immaturity as well as malnutrition among the electorate, and foreign intervention, making the Rizalian Republic an ochlocracy.

This Archipelago, after all, is a place where a bad karaoke singer can get killed if his rendition of Frank Sinatra’s “My Way” irritates the bar patrons and fiesta crowds. [www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/philippines/7199022/My-Way-death...

Be that as it may, Filipinos also hold the world records in:

The largest collection of fast-food restaurant toys. Percival R. Lugue (of Apalit, Pampanga) owns 10,000 items.

The largest board game tournament. A total of 43,157 participants played chess in Cebu.

The largest collection of jigsaw puzzles. Georgina Gil-Lacuna (Tagaytay City) has 1,028 different sets.

“The largest human cross was achieved by 13,266 participants at an event organized by the University of Santo Tomas (Philippines) in Manila, Philippines, on 9 March 2011. The cross was in two colors, black and white.” [www.guinnessworldrecords.de/world-records/largest-human-cross]

The most trees planted simultaneously at multiple locations through TreeVolution: Greening MindaNOW, held on September 26, 2014. [www.minda.gov.ph/index.php/news/121-guinness-world-record-for-the-most-t...

In our reflections of the Filipinos, we may discern that some patterns could have been set more than 100 years ago. According to Jose Rizal:

“Every trader sells his merchandise at the price he likes. The Chinese sells his tinapa sometimes two for a centavo, and at other times, three for two centavos. If we tolerate this practice of the Chinese dealer, why should we not tolerate that of the curate-trader of scapulars?” [Pensamientos de un Filipino, Madrid, 1883-1885]

“But if the capitalist knows how to grease and through offerings to appease the gods and render them favorable, he has already accomplished much.” [“Filipino Farmers,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 21-23, March 1889] Shades of Kidapawan?

“There is a very mistaken idea about the Filipino people. The writers who have described them slandered them, because in depicting them they have taken as models their servants, that multitude of unfortunate devils without country, education, or home, who go to the great capital cities. They (Spanish writers/journalists) have described those ridiculous characters who swarm like parasites around the offices and the sidewalks (overseas Filipino workers/job applicants). They do not know that the educated class who, seeing so much mud and poverty, shut themselves in isolation. Neither do they know the uncontaminated mass of the people in the provinces, as they neither know their spirit nor their language nor their sufferings.” [The Truth for All,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 81-85, May 31, 1889]

Rizal also commented: “However, from all this regrettable incident, it seems it can be inferred, like the mephitic exhalation of a heap of garbage, the desire not to do justice but to kill the criminal; something sanguinary, inhuman, base, something ferocious.” [“Philippines Affairs,” La Solidaridad, Volume II, pp. 93-95, April 30, 1890] Which “regrettable incident” at present applies? The confrontation between the partisans of two candidates in front of that bank in Metro Manila?

Disasters caused by moral hazards! Mitigation. Adaptation. Risk reduction. Perhaps we should draw inspiration from our records of leadership. Like the speech of President Carlos P. Garcia speech on the occasion of the ROTC Field Day, February 20, 1960 (read by Defense Secretary Alejo Santos): “The defense of the fatherland is incumbent upon every citizen. Of our multifarious civic responsibilities the duty to take up arms in defense of our sovereign rights must take precedence...Those of you who have done some readings in the development of constitutional government must know the historical fact that survival of democracy vis-a-vis determined efforts of despots to suppress human freedom and dignity depends mainly on equally determined efforts on the part of lovers of freedom to prepare for self-defense.”

Nationalism “promotes healthier relations with other nations since in asserting our national sovereignty in international affairs, we bring to the attention of the whole world the fact of the equality of nations be they large or small.” [http://www.gov.ph/1960/02/20/speech-of-president-carlos-p-garcia-speech-...

And from Jovito R. Salonga’s “A Journey of Struggle and Hope,” what can we learn about political careers? The future Senate President decided to take up law and enter politics after seeing Speaker Manuel Roxas in action at the Pasig glorietta discussing the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. But decades later: “After my retirement from partisan politics and government service in 1992, I felt as though I had been liberated.” [Quezon City: U.P. Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy, 2001, pp. xv, 7]

From Renato Constantino’s “The Nationalist Alternative,” we find:

The “three basic goals of nationalism” are: “economic independence, political sovereignty and a democratic society.” (Note to the Second Edition, April 9, 1984, p. v)

Legitimization is a “constant preoccupation of governments.” (p. 5)

“A nationalist administration would mobilize the creative energies of the people to better develop the productive forces of society to serve the needs of the majority.” (p. 7)

The Philippines and 96 other members of the United Nations sponsored in 1974 the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States.

“All Philippine administrations, and also their conventional opposition, have been to a large extent captives of the development concepts laid down by the advanced capitalist countries and their transnational corporations.” (p. 26)

“The fate of Third World countries like the Philippines must be decided by the people, not by the elite.” [Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies, 1984, p. 28] By Burkeian estimates, only five percent of the elites form the ruling class in the Philippines. [Pacifico Agabin, “The Ruling Class and the Political Process,” Annual Lecture on the 57th Anniversary of the Civil Liberties Union, Club Filipino, Pasig, Metro Manila, November 30, 1994]

Dynasties? Duh!
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