December 14, 2017, 8:30 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07286 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.2371 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03532 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34185 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02619 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03532 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03968 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.64127 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0329 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00748 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.73174 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01984 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0268 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13611 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06556 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01984 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27679 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20509 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 397.22221 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03964 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02545 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01965 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.01091 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13129 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 59.76786 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.15079 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01984 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.85774 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43159 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.50853 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12539 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95833 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.2829 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26354 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35337 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53936 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01684 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04169 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01486 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01487 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08926 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93552 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 178.63095 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14558 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.02202 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1549 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46552 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12694 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24167 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.29563 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 269.1865 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07009 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27806 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.49306 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 705.13886 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06944 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47282 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01405 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.25091 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04067 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.38333 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.98016 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.15476 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.85714 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.5879 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00599 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01627 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.64028 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 164.68253 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.98016 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.0371 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.48373 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26984 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06049 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01231 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02708 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18758 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34038 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.03175 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.00397 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.25754 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15954 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.97619 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.67083 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30893 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.20853 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37825 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08082 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26978 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.06349 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60937 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16524 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0454 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02854 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00763 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01984 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06416 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06375 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.16171 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07086 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.49603 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07223 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07805 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16704 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.57698 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0744 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15376 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26488 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13228 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16689 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02681 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01487 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4406 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 151.38888 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 11.05159 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 412.7976 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17361 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.21786 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26978 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64663 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0499 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04555 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07593 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13154 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59567 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.30555 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53914 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.66666 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01984 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57401 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 160.53571 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19792 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 450.57538 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11786 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05142 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 11.04186 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05357 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 11.51528 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99881 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.95933 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26986 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.96627 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.18056 Zimbabwe dollar

Divided we fall

OUR public choice, though sovereign, is limited by the quality of candidates, the immaturity as well as malnutrition among the electorate, and foreign intervention, making the Rizalian Republic an ochlocracy.

This Archipelago, after all, is a place where a bad karaoke singer can get killed if his rendition of Frank Sinatra’s “My Way” irritates the bar patrons and fiesta crowds. [www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/philippines/7199022/My-Way-death...

Be that as it may, Filipinos also hold the world records in:

The largest collection of fast-food restaurant toys. Percival R. Lugue (of Apalit, Pampanga) owns 10,000 items.

The largest board game tournament. A total of 43,157 participants played chess in Cebu.

The largest collection of jigsaw puzzles. Georgina Gil-Lacuna (Tagaytay City) has 1,028 different sets.

“The largest human cross was achieved by 13,266 participants at an event organized by the University of Santo Tomas (Philippines) in Manila, Philippines, on 9 March 2011. The cross was in two colors, black and white.” [www.guinnessworldrecords.de/world-records/largest-human-cross]

The most trees planted simultaneously at multiple locations through TreeVolution: Greening MindaNOW, held on September 26, 2014. [www.minda.gov.ph/index.php/news/121-guinness-world-record-for-the-most-t...

In our reflections of the Filipinos, we may discern that some patterns could have been set more than 100 years ago. According to Jose Rizal:

“Every trader sells his merchandise at the price he likes. The Chinese sells his tinapa sometimes two for a centavo, and at other times, three for two centavos. If we tolerate this practice of the Chinese dealer, why should we not tolerate that of the curate-trader of scapulars?” [Pensamientos de un Filipino, Madrid, 1883-1885]

“But if the capitalist knows how to grease and through offerings to appease the gods and render them favorable, he has already accomplished much.” [“Filipino Farmers,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 21-23, March 1889] Shades of Kidapawan?

“There is a very mistaken idea about the Filipino people. The writers who have described them slandered them, because in depicting them they have taken as models their servants, that multitude of unfortunate devils without country, education, or home, who go to the great capital cities. They (Spanish writers/journalists) have described those ridiculous characters who swarm like parasites around the offices and the sidewalks (overseas Filipino workers/job applicants). They do not know that the educated class who, seeing so much mud and poverty, shut themselves in isolation. Neither do they know the uncontaminated mass of the people in the provinces, as they neither know their spirit nor their language nor their sufferings.” [The Truth for All,” La Solidaridad, Volume I, pp. 81-85, May 31, 1889]

Rizal also commented: “However, from all this regrettable incident, it seems it can be inferred, like the mephitic exhalation of a heap of garbage, the desire not to do justice but to kill the criminal; something sanguinary, inhuman, base, something ferocious.” [“Philippines Affairs,” La Solidaridad, Volume II, pp. 93-95, April 30, 1890] Which “regrettable incident” at present applies? The confrontation between the partisans of two candidates in front of that bank in Metro Manila?

Disasters caused by moral hazards! Mitigation. Adaptation. Risk reduction. Perhaps we should draw inspiration from our records of leadership. Like the speech of President Carlos P. Garcia speech on the occasion of the ROTC Field Day, February 20, 1960 (read by Defense Secretary Alejo Santos): “The defense of the fatherland is incumbent upon every citizen. Of our multifarious civic responsibilities the duty to take up arms in defense of our sovereign rights must take precedence...Those of you who have done some readings in the development of constitutional government must know the historical fact that survival of democracy vis-a-vis determined efforts of despots to suppress human freedom and dignity depends mainly on equally determined efforts on the part of lovers of freedom to prepare for self-defense.”

Nationalism “promotes healthier relations with other nations since in asserting our national sovereignty in international affairs, we bring to the attention of the whole world the fact of the equality of nations be they large or small.” [http://www.gov.ph/1960/02/20/speech-of-president-carlos-p-garcia-speech-...

And from Jovito R. Salonga’s “A Journey of Struggle and Hope,” what can we learn about political careers? The future Senate President decided to take up law and enter politics after seeing Speaker Manuel Roxas in action at the Pasig glorietta discussing the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. But decades later: “After my retirement from partisan politics and government service in 1992, I felt as though I had been liberated.” [Quezon City: U.P. Center for Leadership, Citizenship and Democracy, 2001, pp. xv, 7]

From Renato Constantino’s “The Nationalist Alternative,” we find:

The “three basic goals of nationalism” are: “economic independence, political sovereignty and a democratic society.” (Note to the Second Edition, April 9, 1984, p. v)

Legitimization is a “constant preoccupation of governments.” (p. 5)

“A nationalist administration would mobilize the creative energies of the people to better develop the productive forces of society to serve the needs of the majority.” (p. 7)

The Philippines and 96 other members of the United Nations sponsored in 1974 the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States.

“All Philippine administrations, and also their conventional opposition, have been to a large extent captives of the development concepts laid down by the advanced capitalist countries and their transnational corporations.” (p. 26)

“The fate of Third World countries like the Philippines must be decided by the people, not by the elite.” [Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies, 1984, p. 28] By Burkeian estimates, only five percent of the elites form the ruling class in the Philippines. [Pacifico Agabin, “The Ruling Class and the Political Process,” Annual Lecture on the 57th Anniversary of the Civil Liberties Union, Club Filipino, Pasig, Metro Manila, November 30, 1994]

Dynasties? Duh!
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