April 24, 2017, 3:34 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07374 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.52309 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03569 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30873 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02664 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03594 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04016 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.60442 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03655 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00757 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.11145 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02805 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13815 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0632 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.29719 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20863 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 402.00804 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04011 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02704 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02006 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.04137 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13822 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 57.18876 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.03896 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06888 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5051 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.56627 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13952 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94478 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.206 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29345 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36245 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45582 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01876 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04196 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01568 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01569 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0829 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87952 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 184.91968 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14719 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.09759 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15613 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.47028 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1391 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.33133 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.8753 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 267.48997 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07385 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.29783 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.71486 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 651.40564 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20783 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.5753 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01423 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19129 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07028 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.36084 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.66466 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.2757 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 18.07229 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.78434 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00611 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01647 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.28574 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 164.75904 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 30.24498 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.0512 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.80723 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26365 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06122 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01246 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02835 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20071 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38625 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.14859 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.08835 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.45382 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16082 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.16546 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.70542 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30622 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.41325 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37828 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08831 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26428 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.3253 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59764 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1732 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.07129 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02864 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00773 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06511 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0638 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10482 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08003 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.06627 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07311 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08518 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.12932 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.43855 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0753 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15732 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26412 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13373 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18063 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02806 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01568 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4459 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 149.5984 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.98394 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 459.6968 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17514 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.34096 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26384 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.69016 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04869 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.046 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0732 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13453 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6093 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.75904 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53956 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.36948 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57048 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 73.69478 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20029 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 456.12451 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15361 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05189 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.29578 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05422 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.20321 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.22711 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 5.01908 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26447 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 104.20683 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.26707 Zimbabwe dollar

The economics of a failed revolution

In the first place, maybe what we insisted on calling a revolution never was in the strictest sense. Seeing through the years what we had become -- those of us who reveled in the EDSA Revolution, ecstatic we had deposed a dictatorship with prayers -- the EDSA Revolution might have been, in reality, a dismal failure.

Self-reflection can be painful when what stares back falls short of expectations and in contrast might actually be the reality others see. 

Note how others might view our democracy. 

In 1986 we demonized a despot who choked us employing a dictatorial stranglehold that it took decades for us to grow the gonads to depose him. Since then we reverted, confronted now with the possibility of a diabolic political resurrection.

Since 1986, we’ve had two presidents accused of high crimes enough to jail them. After a few years we not only released them but we’ve reinstalled them in powerful positions.

Our political development actually worsened. Recently we picked a president whose reputation for violence might sit well with the reputations of such authoritarians as Baby Doc Duvalier, Pol Pot, and even Idi Amin.

Now note how others might view our economy.

Since 1986 we’ve failed to industrialize and instead established an economy essentially nothing more than a backroom after-sales office providing telephony support. If what sustained us prior to being a business processes outsourcing (BPO) economy was simply being a raw material supplier, via our dependence on BPO, we effectively remain as raw input suppliers.

Where we think we’ve industrialized, we didn’t. Note where mining is typically a seminal industrial catalyst, despite the  political power mining players wield data shows it contributes little to GDP, enhancing instead offshore industrialized economies while ravaging our forests and food baskets.

More than failed development, the manner we celebrate the EDSA Revolution is perhaps the most painful realization of a self-inflicted wound. Note that our most historically popular president chose not to celebrate EDSA himself. The snub was deliberate. Worse, it felt like a slap. 

It’s ironic. Had EDSA failed to unseat Ferdinand E. Marcos, we would not be enjoying the freedoms we carelessly enjoy. Without deposing the dictatorship Cory Aquino would not have been president. Nor would Estrada, Gloria Arroyo and Cory’s son, Benigno III -- the latter’s weaknesses and failures compelling us to elect Rodrigo R. Duterte. 

The EDSA unseating was successful only where it allowed us to choose according to the depth of our intellect and the sway and swings of our emotions. But was the EDSA Revolution just that, an unseating? 

One view of revolutions is that these result in a profound overturning of ruling classes. The socio-economic structure of the Philippines during the dictatorship years and what it is now are perhaps the best arguments that the revolution we thought we fought either did not take place or had failed miserably. 

Some economic indices bear these out. We are not referring to the disembodied GDP that misses out on critical metrics like the gap between the rich and the poor, hunger and inequity -- those that measure inclusive development. 

GDP improved. Even in the simplest macroeconomic growth graphs GDP eventually travels north powered by technological advancement and the inherent desire to be more efficient. Given three decades since 1986, whether governed by outstanding presidents, or among them, bungling buffoons, growth is assumed and dips, naturally corrected.

Between 1986 and  2016 poverty incidence did indeed fall to between 21 percent to 28 percent under Benigno Aquino III, albeit those mimic Estrada’s target in 2004. GDP growth increased from 3.2 percent to 7.1 percent. External debt fell and interest burdens decreased substantially when, under Arroyo, debts were either paid down or refinanced, eventually leading to the ballyhooed ratings Aquino boasted of when he inherited Arroyo’s economy. Tragically however, per capita GDP remained lowest in the region while coup-cursed Thailand, our economic twin, registered over 2.20 times ours.

Unemployment, also the worst in the region among even lower GDP growth economies, improved from 1986 as the government changed its benchmarks but the bigger problem of underemployment remained substantially between 25 percent to 33 percent. The most alarming however is the labor participation rate under Aquino’s final year. Those looking for work in 2016 were 63.4 percent. In 1986 it averaged lower at 62.9 percent.

Where revolutions impact on inequities EDSA failed miserably. The Gini Coefficient that measures inequality worsened under Aquino registering 43.1 percent compared to 41.04 percent in 1986.

That gap should not have happened. Yet it was allowed to grow by a dispensation that cared little and had no empathy for our poorest subsisting at the bottom rung of the index despite the GDP growth that skirted them. The gap shows  the last presidency that could have and should have resurrected the economic promise of EDSA, simply pampered its upper-crust plutocracy. 

After 1986 we crawled away from a debt-driven economy and GDP grew. But only for the rich. From 1986 the worsening inequity shows how government fails when it prioritizes the interests of cronies in the case of 1986, and in 2016, the “kaklase, kaibigan and kabarilan” coterie under Aquino. If the EDSA celebrations were largely ignored last month it is because the last plutocratic administration hammered the last nail on its coffin.
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