February 22, 2017, 2:18 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07293 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.52581 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03515 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30481 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02586 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03554 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03971 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57506 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03647 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00748 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.46168 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02815 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13622 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06162 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.33042 Bhutan Ngultrum
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1 Philippine Peso = 397.53772 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03967 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02601 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01991 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.67752 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13655 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 57.2776 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.95115 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06136 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50503 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.53197 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13894 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92534 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18034 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29236 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31315 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44698 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04092 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01598 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01592 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08694 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.86338 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 184.72001 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14677 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.05262 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15408 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46652 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13837 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28535 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.75973 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 265.01191 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07353 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.32923 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.45115 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 643.20888 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18924 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.54845 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01407 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.24728 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.05322 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37172 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.01906 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.15965 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.87133 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.76807 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00605 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01628 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.33439 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 162.45035 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.86497 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98749 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.78713 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25715 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06054 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01232 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02826 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19979 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39525 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.14496 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.88642 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 49.14615 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15873 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.05322 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.70234 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30421 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.29706 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.40758 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08849 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26128 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25496 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58627 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16555 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15647 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02763 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00764 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06476 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06296 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08122 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08074 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 114.24742 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07229 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08451 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.15249 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.1811 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07447 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15448 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26803 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13238 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17685 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02815 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01598 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44095 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 145.88959 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.90151 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 458.00835 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1732 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.22597 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26146 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.69519 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04538 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0447 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07189 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13343 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6112 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.24146 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53981 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.20731 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01986 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56195 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 65.62748 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19806 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 452.9984 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10346 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05044 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.2498 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05361 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.39515 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.22379 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.96823 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26052 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 103.04805 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.18626 Zimbabwe dollar

The far times: Sideward

ANDALUSIA, 1492, it is the Spanish Inquisition, and Aguilar de Nerha of the Assassin’s Brotherhood is deployed to rescue Prince Ahmed de Granada from the Templars who are coercing Sultan Muhammad XII (Prince Ahmed’s father) to surrender the Apple of Eden.

In this world, the Assassin’s Brotherhood and the Templar Order are battling for possession of the Apple of Eden (which is the genetic code to man’s free will), with the former defending peace through free will and the latter obsessed with peace through mind-control. The Brotherhood’s members are fitted with wrist blades and the Order is composed of monks and knights. Who are the good guys and who are the villains?

Welcome to Michael Fassbender’s “Assassin’s Creed” film-universe that extends Ubisoft’s “Assassin’s Creed” action-adventure and pseudo-historical video-game series. This is a genre played by millions of gamers and the movie explores the concept of genetic memories. As a bonus feature in the motion picture’s official website, a fan inputting his surname and geographic location into an app will discover that he may be distantly related to Japanese shogun Oda Nobunaga and Mongol warlord Genghis Khan.

The big-screen extension of the “Assassin’s Creed” game-play also offers an opportunity to look into real-world events involving political killings, conspiracies and corporatist agendas. Samples:

(1) “Victor Hugo declared in his Les Orientales (1829) that Spain also was oriental. This perception owed mainly to the rich heritage of Islamic architecture left behind by the Moorish rule on the Iberian Peninsula...As Renaissance started to conquer Europe, centuries of Moorish rule in the Iberian Peninsula was brought to an end in 1492, with the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings...the Muslim empire of the Morisco-Spaniards that enjoyed a prosperous civilization for eight centuries was almost completely annihilated.” [Arda and others, “Reconquering Andalusia: The Muslim Cities of the West,” American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 3, No. 9, September 2013]

(2) Andalusia is the region with the highest concentration of Gitanos in Spain. [Report on the situation of Roma and Sinti in the OSCE Area, The Hague, 10 March 2000]

(3) “In 1492, unlike the Spanish Jews, the Spanish Muslims had not yet received the ultimatum to either convert to Christianity or to leave the Peninsula. But as early as 1499, Muslims of Spain knew that the same prospect presented to the Jewish communities would be enforced upon them. In 1501 a royal decree was made requiring the Muslims of Granada to convert to Christianity or face exile. This capitulation translated into conversion activities throughout the different kingdoms of Spain from 1501 to 1526. In 1501 the Granadan Muslims were baptized, in 1502 the same activity spread to Castile. By 1526, the Muslims of Granada, Castile, Aragon, Valencia, Extremadura and elsewhere in Spain had converted.” [Bahrami, Beebe, “The Persistence of the Andalusian Identity in Rabat, Morocco” (1995). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. 1176]

(4) “The peasants of all the villages of Andalusia are rising, united by the ardent wish to smash reaction and to halt the advance of fascism.” [Dolores Ibárruri, “Discipline, Calm, Vigilance!” Radio Broadcast, Madrid, July 29, 1936]

(5) “It was in the poverty-stricken parts of Spain–mainly in Andalusia and in Catalonia–that the anarchists advocated resort to ‘propaganda by deed.’ During the period from 1882 to 1886, anarchist groups such as Mano Negra engaged in expropriation and murdered more than 20 leading figures.” [The History Of Terrorism From Antiquity To Al Qaeda. Edited by Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007, p. 119]

(6) “It is strange that Manila has pursued this commerce for 140 years without any protest from Andalusia until now; the decadence of the latter is due rather to lack of economy in the use of their wealth than to the competition of Filipinas; and Andalusia has always encountered trouble, since the persons interested in the greater part of the lading of the galleons and fleets have been and are foreigners—French, English, and Dutch.” [Of what was done in Manila on receiving the decree of October 27, 1720...Reply from the commerce of Andalucia. In: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XLIV, 1700-1736, Editors: Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson]

(7) “Doña Victorina has added to her false frizzes and to her Andalusization, if we may be permitted the term, the new custom of driving the carriage horses herself.” [José Rizal, Epilogue, The Social Cancer]

(8) “It is as if I see the mujahids given victory in the Arabian Peninsula...The noble people in the states will renounce (the regimes) and restore the rights of the Umma which these collaborating regimes had snatched away...After that, the throngs will apply themselves (by the aid of God) to liberating Jerusalem and that which surrounds it and liberating Bukhara, Samarkand, Andalusia, and all of the lands of the Muslims. Then we will begin liberating the earth and humanity from the hegemony of unbelief...” [Abu Bakr Naji. The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Umma Will Pass. Translated by William McCants. John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. 23 May 2006. Page 144]

So much for the setting of the story. Meanwhile, the Order has been a real force in history.

(1) “The original Knights Templar was a mediaeval military order during the Crusades (1129-1312 A.D.), charged with defending pilgrims in the Holy Land, known for its members’ piety, military prowess – and wealth. The Mexican Knights Templar combined the religious fervour of La Familia and the martial culture of the Zetas. They were governed by a written code of ethics positioning Knights as temporal intermediaries between the community and their unjust oppressors (the state and other criminal rivals).” [James David Robert Cockayne. Hidden Power: The Strategic Logic of Organized Crime. Sicily, New York and the Caribbean, 1859- 1968, and Mexico and the Sahel. Thesis. King’s College London]

(2) There is demonstrable continuity between German Nazism and Andres Breivik’s vision of a new caste of Knights Templars repelling Muslims from Europe’s citadel. [Roger Griffin, “Studying Fascism in a Postfascist Age. From New Consensus to New Wave?” Fascism 1 (2012) 1–17]

(3) “The knights of St. John, the Teutonic knights, or the Templars–the latter of these, besides the grand-master and grand-priors, and religious nuncios, had also some resemblance to the Assassins in their spirit of political interference and secret doctrine.” [Joseph, Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall. The History of the Assassins: Derived from Oriental Sources. London: Smith and Elder, Cornhill, 1835, p. 80]

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