January 24, 2017, 4:42 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07374 UAE Dirham
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.03554 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31919 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02651 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03594 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04015 Barbados Dollar
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Bermuda Dollar
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.13772 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06361 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.3682 Bhutan Ngultrum
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1 Philippine Peso = 401.92732 Belarus Ruble
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.02666 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02004 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.18591 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13751 Chinese Yuan
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Cuban Peso
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1 Philippine Peso = 3.57217 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13889 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93074 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.20331 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29226 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37543 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44991 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01868 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04166 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01616 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01615 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.087 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89038 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 187.41216 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15124 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.06966 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15574 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4734 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13971 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.32423 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.77896 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 267.71732 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07614 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.36677 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.7101 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 649.66873 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.26902 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.58201 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0142 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.27496 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0789 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.39476 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 80.1064 Cambodia Riel
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1 Philippine Peso = 18.06866 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 23.40052 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00612 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01646 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.64124 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.90283 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 30.19474 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.01245 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.80687 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27264 Lesotho Loti
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.01246 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02857 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20153 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.40203 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.14595 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.24352 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 49.7892 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16041 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.12508 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.71652 Mauritius Rupee
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.43007 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08912 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27073 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.32403 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5903 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16818 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18028 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02784 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00773 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06614 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06368 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.10379 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08163 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 116.05501 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07309 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08384 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.19551 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.31359 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07529 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1571 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26348 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12864 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17761 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02847 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01617 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44581 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.3963 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.98173 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 457.63702 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17511 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.33889 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27078 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.70749 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04554 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.046 Tonga Pa'ang
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07571 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1343 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6304 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 45.23188 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54889 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.01365 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02008 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57338 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 65.14756 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20026 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 452.70025 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.13833 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05129 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 12.24091 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05421 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12.44228 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.2359 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 5.01807 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27076 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 104.1859 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.26561 Zimbabwe dollar

The far times: Sideward

ANDALUSIA, 1492, it is the Spanish Inquisition, and Aguilar de Nerha of the Assassin’s Brotherhood is deployed to rescue Prince Ahmed de Granada from the Templars who are coercing Sultan Muhammad XII (Prince Ahmed’s father) to surrender the Apple of Eden.

In this world, the Assassin’s Brotherhood and the Templar Order are battling for possession of the Apple of Eden (which is the genetic code to man’s free will), with the former defending peace through free will and the latter obsessed with peace through mind-control. The Brotherhood’s members are fitted with wrist blades and the Order is composed of monks and knights. Who are the good guys and who are the villains?

Welcome to Michael Fassbender’s “Assassin’s Creed” film-universe that extends Ubisoft’s “Assassin’s Creed” action-adventure and pseudo-historical video-game series. This is a genre played by millions of gamers and the movie explores the concept of genetic memories. As a bonus feature in the motion picture’s official website, a fan inputting his surname and geographic location into an app will discover that he may be distantly related to Japanese shogun Oda Nobunaga and Mongol warlord Genghis Khan.

The big-screen extension of the “Assassin’s Creed” game-play also offers an opportunity to look into real-world events involving political killings, conspiracies and corporatist agendas. Samples:

(1) “Victor Hugo declared in his Les Orientales (1829) that Spain also was oriental. This perception owed mainly to the rich heritage of Islamic architecture left behind by the Moorish rule on the Iberian Peninsula...As Renaissance started to conquer Europe, centuries of Moorish rule in the Iberian Peninsula was brought to an end in 1492, with the conquest of Granada by the Catholic Kings...the Muslim empire of the Morisco-Spaniards that enjoyed a prosperous civilization for eight centuries was almost completely annihilated.” [Arda and others, “Reconquering Andalusia: The Muslim Cities of the West,” American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 3, No. 9, September 2013]

(2) Andalusia is the region with the highest concentration of Gitanos in Spain. [Report on the situation of Roma and Sinti in the OSCE Area, The Hague, 10 March 2000]

(3) “In 1492, unlike the Spanish Jews, the Spanish Muslims had not yet received the ultimatum to either convert to Christianity or to leave the Peninsula. But as early as 1499, Muslims of Spain knew that the same prospect presented to the Jewish communities would be enforced upon them. In 1501 a royal decree was made requiring the Muslims of Granada to convert to Christianity or face exile. This capitulation translated into conversion activities throughout the different kingdoms of Spain from 1501 to 1526. In 1501 the Granadan Muslims were baptized, in 1502 the same activity spread to Castile. By 1526, the Muslims of Granada, Castile, Aragon, Valencia, Extremadura and elsewhere in Spain had converted.” [Bahrami, Beebe, “The Persistence of the Andalusian Identity in Rabat, Morocco” (1995). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. 1176]

(4) “The peasants of all the villages of Andalusia are rising, united by the ardent wish to smash reaction and to halt the advance of fascism.” [Dolores Ibárruri, “Discipline, Calm, Vigilance!” Radio Broadcast, Madrid, July 29, 1936]

(5) “It was in the poverty-stricken parts of Spain–mainly in Andalusia and in Catalonia–that the anarchists advocated resort to ‘propaganda by deed.’ During the period from 1882 to 1886, anarchist groups such as Mano Negra engaged in expropriation and murdered more than 20 leading figures.” [The History Of Terrorism From Antiquity To Al Qaeda. Edited by Gérard Chaliand and Arnaud Blin. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007, p. 119]

(6) “It is strange that Manila has pursued this commerce for 140 years without any protest from Andalusia until now; the decadence of the latter is due rather to lack of economy in the use of their wealth than to the competition of Filipinas; and Andalusia has always encountered trouble, since the persons interested in the greater part of the lading of the galleons and fleets have been and are foreigners—French, English, and Dutch.” [Of what was done in Manila on receiving the decree of October 27, 1720...Reply from the commerce of Andalucia. In: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, Volume XLIV, 1700-1736, Editors: Emma Helen Blair, James Alexander Robertson]

(7) “Doña Victorina has added to her false frizzes and to her Andalusization, if we may be permitted the term, the new custom of driving the carriage horses herself.” [José Rizal, Epilogue, The Social Cancer]

(8) “It is as if I see the mujahids given victory in the Arabian Peninsula...The noble people in the states will renounce (the regimes) and restore the rights of the Umma which these collaborating regimes had snatched away...After that, the throngs will apply themselves (by the aid of God) to liberating Jerusalem and that which surrounds it and liberating Bukhara, Samarkand, Andalusia, and all of the lands of the Muslims. Then we will begin liberating the earth and humanity from the hegemony of unbelief...” [Abu Bakr Naji. The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Umma Will Pass. Translated by William McCants. John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. 23 May 2006. Page 144]

So much for the setting of the story. Meanwhile, the Order has been a real force in history.

(1) “The original Knights Templar was a mediaeval military order during the Crusades (1129-1312 A.D.), charged with defending pilgrims in the Holy Land, known for its members’ piety, military prowess – and wealth. The Mexican Knights Templar combined the religious fervour of La Familia and the martial culture of the Zetas. They were governed by a written code of ethics positioning Knights as temporal intermediaries between the community and their unjust oppressors (the state and other criminal rivals).” [James David Robert Cockayne. Hidden Power: The Strategic Logic of Organized Crime. Sicily, New York and the Caribbean, 1859- 1968, and Mexico and the Sahel. Thesis. King’s College London]

(2) There is demonstrable continuity between German Nazism and Andres Breivik’s vision of a new caste of Knights Templars repelling Muslims from Europe’s citadel. [Roger Griffin, “Studying Fascism in a Postfascist Age. From New Consensus to New Wave?” Fascism 1 (2012) 1–17]

(3) “The knights of St. John, the Teutonic knights, or the Templars–the latter of these, besides the grand-master and grand-priors, and religious nuncios, had also some resemblance to the Assassins in their spirit of political interference and secret doctrine.” [Joseph, Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall. The History of the Assassins: Derived from Oriental Sources. London: Smith and Elder, Cornhill, 1835, p. 80]

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