January 19, 2018, 5:21 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07263 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.14992 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03521 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37318 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02474 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03521 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03956 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63687 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03163 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00745 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.63172 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01978 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02627 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13568 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06382 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01978 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25445 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19324 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 395.96518 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03951 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02456 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01896 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.96895 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12736 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 56.62579 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.15506 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01978 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.77275 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.40883 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.49743 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1197 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95886 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.24462 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25141 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34978 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53817 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01607 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03956 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01433 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01431 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08957 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.9371 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 177.94699 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14509 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.07219 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15475 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46509 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11922 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25771 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.9644 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 263.35047 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06775 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.266 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.41772 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 723.08147 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02255 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.43928 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01399 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18216 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03224 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.37189 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.26622 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.12896 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.80063 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.02452 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00594 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01622 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.47765 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.7856 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.88528 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.04292 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.5093 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24248 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0603 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01227 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02646 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18183 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33356 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98418 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.46361 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.8837 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1593 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.96203 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64676 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30795 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.11195 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37086 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07803 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24161 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.0807 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6072 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15518 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0265 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02715 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0076 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01978 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06341 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0624 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18473 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06706 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 110.52215 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07202 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07488 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.11739 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.52987 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07417 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15387 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26503 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13841 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15847 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02609 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01433 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4392 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 150.90981 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.85839 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 393.89636 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17306 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.18552 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24175 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.63054 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04769 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04409 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07507 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13281 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5839 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.34335 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56547 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 71.79588 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01978 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56468 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 160.81883 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19729 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 449.14952 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0449 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04966 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.5352 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0534 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.5352 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.90645 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.94363 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24183 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 102.64043 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.15783 Zimbabwe dollar

Food contamination

What is Food Poisoning?
Food poisoning is a variety of illnesses caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria, toxins or chemicals. This is more common during holidays and summertime. The symptoms usually include diarrhea, abdominal pains and vomiting. The diarrhea and vomiting could be so severe as to cause extreme dehydration, which, if untreated and unabated, could be fatal.

How does bacterial contamination occur?
Raw food may have bacteria in it or may be contaminated by unsanitary handling. These bacteria then grow and multiply, and when the “infected” food is eaten, the growth and multiplication of the bacteria continue in the stomach or bowel, producing symptoms of food poisoning. This leads to abdominal pains, diarrhea and vomiting, which are part of the body’s defensive ways of getting rid of the offending bacteria. The most common bacteria causing food poisoning is Listeria Salmonella (usually from poultry or infected eggs, specifically duck eggs), Clostridia (contamination by dirt or flies), and Shigella and Escherichia coli (fecal contamination of food and/or water).

What about toxins?
Food that is kept in a warm place, or improperly preserved, can produce chemicals called toxins. One of the commonest is the Staphylococci toxin from Staphylococci bacteria that can be transmitted by a careless food handler with a boil or infected wound full of the Staph bacteria. Botulism (due to Clostridium Botulinum), from badly tinned or bottled food, is not very common but can be fatal. When the contaminated food is ingested, severe gastrointestinal symptoms may occur.

What chemical poisons are found in food?
There are some common food items that contain natural chemical poisons. Some fungi are very poisonous even when eaten in tiny quantities, causing irregular heart beat, coma or even death. The green areas on potatoes which have been exposed to the light, uncooked kidney beans, some nuts, etc. contain poisonous chemicals, which can cause symptoms of food poisoning if inadequately cooked. Not properly washing fruits and vegetables that are contaminated with pesticides can also cause food poisoning. Some mushrooms are poisonous and not edible.

What bacteria grows on cooked rice?
Bacillus cereus thrives and multiplies in cooked rice and can cause food poisoning. The bacteria produces chemical toxin which is very resistant and not destroyed even by high temperatures. The best way to prevent this is by refrigerating left over rice, which should be consumed within 48 hours. The symptoms of food poisoning usually start fairly suddenly with abdominal pains, frequently cramping in nature and soon followed by diarrhea. The pains can be persistent for a few days and become worst before an episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Throwing up may cease after a few hours but the diarrhea may continue for days. If the illness is due to bacterial contamination, the symptoms appear about 12-24 hours after ingestion, but if it is due to toxins, the onset of symptoms comes rapidly, usually within minutes after eating the contaminated food. Severe Botulism begins after about 12 hours with vomiting, abdominal cramps, and may culminate in paralysis and coma.

Is food poisoning dangerous?
Obviously, yes, as discussed above. In young children and among the elderly, dehydration is the main danger. Vomiting and diarrhea can result in a rapid loss of body fluids and electrolytes. This can disrupt the very delicate chemical balance in the body and, if not treated early, can lead to coma and even death. Botulinum and Staph toxins are in themselves dangerous, and the poisoning can be fatal, if not managed in a timely and proper fashion.

How do we prevent food poisoning?
Good environmental and personal hygiene, proper food preparation, handling and storage, avoidance of questionable food (fruit or potato salad and dishes sautéed with tomato that have been exposed for more than an hour at a party or picnic under hot weather, mussels and other shelled foods that remain closed after cooking, poultry or meats (hamburgers, etc) that are not thoroughly cooked, and canned goods that are of questionable freshness, that are “expired,” or with bulging top, are some basic preventive measures that can be taken to prevent food poisoning. The prudent practice and common sense dictum is “if in doubt, discard.”

What is the mainstay of therapy?
This depends on the cause of the food poisoning: bacteria, toxin or chemical. But basically, oral and/or intravenous fluid replacement is the key to prevent further dehydration from fluid and electrolyte loss from diarrhea and vomiting, which could be life-threatening. Young children and the elderly can become very ill fast, since they succumb rapidly to dehydration, so medical consultation, or even hospitalization, may be needed early. Antibiotics may be given where indicated to clear up the infection, but as a rule they are usually not used because they may sometimes worsen the condition. Fortunately, most of the food poisoning cases respond well to fluid replacement. Possible botulism patients should be hospitalized without delay. The stomach may be pumped out and botulism anti-toxin given to counteract paralysis. Those who are very ill may need ventilator support in the ICU. An antidote may be needed for fungal food poisoning. All the evaluation and decision on the management are best handled by the attending physician. After surviving the acute stage, the patient is expected to recover fully with excellent prognosis. However, just like most other illnesses, food poisoning is best prevented. In majority of situations, this is within our
power.

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