April 20, 2018, 10:49 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07053 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99923 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38677 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02467 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03841 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59228 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03034 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00724 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.62742 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02503 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13175 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06526 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26032 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18403 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 384.48243 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03837 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02421 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01858 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.41406 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12052 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 52.12791 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.7778 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.71039 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39282 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.39601 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11551 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94891 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1798 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24262 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33916 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52276 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01551 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03865 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01348 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08525 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89975 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.80584 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14089 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.95007 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15072 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45249 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11491 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24505 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.8093 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.60534 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06739 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26727 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.73862 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 806.60649 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91031 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.37565 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01361 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06171 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92145 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.32194 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.97331 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.61206 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.28442 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.40042 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01575 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25043 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.93989 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.9034 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.99693 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.50451 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22892 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05855 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01192 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02543 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17577 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31452 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94968 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.52333 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.86134 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15521 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76013 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64144 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29902 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.70175 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35007 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07459 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22915 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.87536 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59554 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14884 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01652 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02629 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00739 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06176 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06241 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21836 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06459 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.04187 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0699 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07223 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16816 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.22066 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07202 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14768 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25792 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34667 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.161 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02513 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42646 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.53351 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.79316 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 380.06338 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16804 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.89015 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22917 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.599 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04602 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04292 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07736 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12961 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56365 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.7488 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50259 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.84694 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54158 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 154.65719 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1139.831 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 437.43038 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00538 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04922 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05185 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.83983 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79931 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2292 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.66391 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.95026 Zimbabwe dollar

Food contamination

What is Food Poisoning?
Food poisoning is a variety of illnesses caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria, toxins or chemicals. This is more common during holidays and summertime. The symptoms usually include diarrhea, abdominal pains and vomiting. The diarrhea and vomiting could be so severe as to cause extreme dehydration, which, if untreated and unabated, could be fatal.

How does bacterial contamination occur?
Raw food may have bacteria in it or may be contaminated by unsanitary handling. These bacteria then grow and multiply, and when the “infected” food is eaten, the growth and multiplication of the bacteria continue in the stomach or bowel, producing symptoms of food poisoning. This leads to abdominal pains, diarrhea and vomiting, which are part of the body’s defensive ways of getting rid of the offending bacteria. The most common bacteria causing food poisoning is Listeria Salmonella (usually from poultry or infected eggs, specifically duck eggs), Clostridia (contamination by dirt or flies), and Shigella and Escherichia coli (fecal contamination of food and/or water).

What about toxins?
Food that is kept in a warm place, or improperly preserved, can produce chemicals called toxins. One of the commonest is the Staphylococci toxin from Staphylococci bacteria that can be transmitted by a careless food handler with a boil or infected wound full of the Staph bacteria. Botulism (due to Clostridium Botulinum), from badly tinned or bottled food, is not very common but can be fatal. When the contaminated food is ingested, severe gastrointestinal symptoms may occur.

What chemical poisons are found in food?
There are some common food items that contain natural chemical poisons. Some fungi are very poisonous even when eaten in tiny quantities, causing irregular heart beat, coma or even death. The green areas on potatoes which have been exposed to the light, uncooked kidney beans, some nuts, etc. contain poisonous chemicals, which can cause symptoms of food poisoning if inadequately cooked. Not properly washing fruits and vegetables that are contaminated with pesticides can also cause food poisoning. Some mushrooms are poisonous and not edible.

What bacteria grows on cooked rice?
Bacillus cereus thrives and multiplies in cooked rice and can cause food poisoning. The bacteria produces chemical toxin which is very resistant and not destroyed even by high temperatures. The best way to prevent this is by refrigerating left over rice, which should be consumed within 48 hours. The symptoms of food poisoning usually start fairly suddenly with abdominal pains, frequently cramping in nature and soon followed by diarrhea. The pains can be persistent for a few days and become worst before an episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Throwing up may cease after a few hours but the diarrhea may continue for days. If the illness is due to bacterial contamination, the symptoms appear about 12-24 hours after ingestion, but if it is due to toxins, the onset of symptoms comes rapidly, usually within minutes after eating the contaminated food. Severe Botulism begins after about 12 hours with vomiting, abdominal cramps, and may culminate in paralysis and coma.

Is food poisoning dangerous?
Obviously, yes, as discussed above. In young children and among the elderly, dehydration is the main danger. Vomiting and diarrhea can result in a rapid loss of body fluids and electrolytes. This can disrupt the very delicate chemical balance in the body and, if not treated early, can lead to coma and even death. Botulinum and Staph toxins are in themselves dangerous, and the poisoning can be fatal, if not managed in a timely and proper fashion.

How do we prevent food poisoning?
Good environmental and personal hygiene, proper food preparation, handling and storage, avoidance of questionable food (fruit or potato salad and dishes sautéed with tomato that have been exposed for more than an hour at a party or picnic under hot weather, mussels and other shelled foods that remain closed after cooking, poultry or meats (hamburgers, etc) that are not thoroughly cooked, and canned goods that are of questionable freshness, that are “expired,” or with bulging top, are some basic preventive measures that can be taken to prevent food poisoning. The prudent practice and common sense dictum is “if in doubt, discard.”

What is the mainstay of therapy?
This depends on the cause of the food poisoning: bacteria, toxin or chemical. But basically, oral and/or intravenous fluid replacement is the key to prevent further dehydration from fluid and electrolyte loss from diarrhea and vomiting, which could be life-threatening. Young children and the elderly can become very ill fast, since they succumb rapidly to dehydration, so medical consultation, or even hospitalization, may be needed early. Antibiotics may be given where indicated to clear up the infection, but as a rule they are usually not used because they may sometimes worsen the condition. Fortunately, most of the food poisoning cases respond well to fluid replacement. Possible botulism patients should be hospitalized without delay. The stomach may be pumped out and botulism anti-toxin given to counteract paralysis. Those who are very ill may need ventilator support in the ICU. An antidote may be needed for fungal food poisoning. All the evaluation and decision on the management are best handled by the attending physician. After surviving the acute stage, the patient is expected to recover fully with excellent prognosis. However, just like most other illnesses, food poisoning is best prevented. In majority of situations, this is within our
power.

***

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