April 23, 2018, 11:00 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07044 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01285 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03414 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3869 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02498 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03414 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03836 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59992 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03047 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00723 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.58228 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.025 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13157 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06531 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26103 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18432 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 383.96625 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03832 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02447 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.4346 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12071 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 52.91139 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.76908 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.72344 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3961 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.39145 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1164 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94764 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1869 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24445 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33832 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52167 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01562 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03879 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01369 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01368 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08493 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89893 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.6122 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1407 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.94879 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15041 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4519 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11558 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.23341 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.85501 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.4557 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06754 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26972 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.70809 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 805.52361 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92079 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.37438 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01359 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06782 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91408 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.31497 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.83161 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.65286 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.26122 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.47315 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01573 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25738 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.78405 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.8646 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.99962 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.50441 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23188 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05847 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0119 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02539 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17621 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31433 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95589 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.29728 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.79977 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15492 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.75105 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64212 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29862 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.71883 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35542 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07476 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23032 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.88531 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59455 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15025 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02693 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02661 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00738 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06167 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06232 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21711 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06525 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 105.81128 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06981 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07297 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.17426 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.19889 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07192 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14921 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25758 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34621 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1621 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01369 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42589 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.33679 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.79785 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 382.92676 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16782 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.87687 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2317 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60153 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04709 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04287 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07793 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12937 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56552 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.65171 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50153 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.73264 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01918 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54066 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 154.48792 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1138.30075 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 436.67051 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02071 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04846 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.24242 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05178 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.24242 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.85386 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79287 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.23169 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.53011 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.94093 Zimbabwe dollar

ICJ is not the proper solution

ONE of the news that struck me is about the filing of cases at the International Court of Justice by a group of Maranaoans in order to seek a P120-billion worth of payment in damages from the Philippine government for the destruction of Marawi City and alleged abuses of the military. In my opinion, this is understandable given the almost dragging progress of military operations neutralizing the Maute IS group. However, although the sentiments espoused by our Maranao brothers and sisters are valid, invoking the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice is not the proper solution that the current situation calls for. 

First and foremost, the Government cannot be said to be causing injury to anyone whenever it is engaged in the discharge of its duties and exercise of its valid right. It is a fundamental principle in all jurisdictions that the State has the inherent right to self-preservation. Thus, in view of the imminent threats and dangers of invasion exhibited by the IS-inspired rebel and terror Maute group, the Government is justified in deploying military forces and using means and resources necessary to thwart these lawless and violent entities seeking to sow terror and destruction in the country. 

Noteworthy as well that this measure is also in furtherance of its duty to safeguard peace and the welfare, not just of the inhabitants of the Marawi City, but of all Filipino people. Let us recognize the fact that the Government and the military have to do what has to be done instead of just waiting and allowing these lawless entities spread atrocities all over our country.

Consequently, in the exercise of a valid right and discharge of a duty enjoined by law, no matter how unfortunate it may seem, the State cannot be considered to be injuring any person that would entitle the latter to sue it for damages.

Meanwhile, assuming that there is a cause of action against the Government and the AFP, the proposed lawsuit is not cognizable by the International Court of Justice. Pursuant to the Charter of United Nations that established said court, it has only two types of jurisdiction – contentious and advisory jurisdictions. Under its contentious jurisdiction, the Court may only decide disputes submitted to it by States, which are the only ones permitted to apply to and appear before it. International organizations, other collectivities, and private persons are not entitled to institute proceedings before the Court. On the other hand, the Court’s advisory jurisdiction, which may be invoked by international organizations, allows it to give opinions based on contentious proceedings. However, such opinions have no binding effect, unless otherwise stipulated by the involved parties beforehand. 

Thus, given the limited character of the International Court of Justice’s jurisdiction, It is apparent that the planned filing of a damage suit before said international court may not even be countenanced in the first place.

Finally, elevating a cause of action to the international arena, without exhausting first all such remedies available to the claimant provided for by the Philippine’s municipal law, is but an abrogation of the fundamental principle of exhaustion of remedies and an insult to our independence as a State. Apart from according respect and deference to our administrative and judicial processes, we should not allow interference by the International Court of Justice – or any foreign entity – especially on matters covered, cognizable, and provided for by our very own and independent justice system. – JOSE M. BUQUELA, jmbuquela@outlook.com
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