July 17, 2018, 5:24 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.06864 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00897 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03439 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50824 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02516 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03326 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03738 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.56345 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03139 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00707 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.72248 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02526 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1282 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07195 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.282 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19138 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 374.13568 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03734 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02459 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.14969 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12502 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 53.37133 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.54401 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.76603 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.4139 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.31714 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11919 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.92375 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19884 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25015 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.3334 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51037 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01599 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03902 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01411 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01412 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08949 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.88526 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 168.36105 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13998 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.87012 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14665 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44715 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11858 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.25939 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.1596 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 268.604 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06791 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27993 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.12671 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 807.13885 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0015 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.42478 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01324 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.09923 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.87722 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27646 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 75.63072 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.88806 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.81929 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.08952 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00566 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01532 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.39993 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 157.01738 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.13493 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.97982 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.97197 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24762 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05697 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0116 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02562 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17688 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31088 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98075 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.55578 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.74846 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15104 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.63427 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6382 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29097 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.33283 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35287 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07569 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24767 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.69034 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58456 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15155 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04691 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02764 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00719 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06103 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06077 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.27135 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06898 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.5969 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06802 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07424 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.1686 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.92992 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07008 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14699 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25089 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33555 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16567 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02551 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01412 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41499 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 153.24238 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.65221 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 391.8333 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16352 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.624 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24803 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62213 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04953 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04334 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.09042 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12621 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57118 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.3846 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.48981 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.93085 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01869 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58568 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 145.44945 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 2236.96505 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 430.74192 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06036 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04858 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.48103 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05046 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.48103 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.90563 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.66922 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24782 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 96.98187 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76322 Zimbabwe dollar

ICJ is not the proper solution

ONE of the news that struck me is about the filing of cases at the International Court of Justice by a group of Maranaoans in order to seek a P120-billion worth of payment in damages from the Philippine government for the destruction of Marawi City and alleged abuses of the military. In my opinion, this is understandable given the almost dragging progress of military operations neutralizing the Maute IS group. However, although the sentiments espoused by our Maranao brothers and sisters are valid, invoking the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice is not the proper solution that the current situation calls for. 

First and foremost, the Government cannot be said to be causing injury to anyone whenever it is engaged in the discharge of its duties and exercise of its valid right. It is a fundamental principle in all jurisdictions that the State has the inherent right to self-preservation. Thus, in view of the imminent threats and dangers of invasion exhibited by the IS-inspired rebel and terror Maute group, the Government is justified in deploying military forces and using means and resources necessary to thwart these lawless and violent entities seeking to sow terror and destruction in the country. 

Noteworthy as well that this measure is also in furtherance of its duty to safeguard peace and the welfare, not just of the inhabitants of the Marawi City, but of all Filipino people. Let us recognize the fact that the Government and the military have to do what has to be done instead of just waiting and allowing these lawless entities spread atrocities all over our country.

Consequently, in the exercise of a valid right and discharge of a duty enjoined by law, no matter how unfortunate it may seem, the State cannot be considered to be injuring any person that would entitle the latter to sue it for damages.

Meanwhile, assuming that there is a cause of action against the Government and the AFP, the proposed lawsuit is not cognizable by the International Court of Justice. Pursuant to the Charter of United Nations that established said court, it has only two types of jurisdiction – contentious and advisory jurisdictions. Under its contentious jurisdiction, the Court may only decide disputes submitted to it by States, which are the only ones permitted to apply to and appear before it. International organizations, other collectivities, and private persons are not entitled to institute proceedings before the Court. On the other hand, the Court’s advisory jurisdiction, which may be invoked by international organizations, allows it to give opinions based on contentious proceedings. However, such opinions have no binding effect, unless otherwise stipulated by the involved parties beforehand. 

Thus, given the limited character of the International Court of Justice’s jurisdiction, It is apparent that the planned filing of a damage suit before said international court may not even be countenanced in the first place.

Finally, elevating a cause of action to the international arena, without exhausting first all such remedies available to the claimant provided for by the Philippine’s municipal law, is but an abrogation of the fundamental principle of exhaustion of remedies and an insult to our independence as a State. Apart from according respect and deference to our administrative and judicial processes, we should not allow interference by the International Court of Justice – or any foreign entity – especially on matters covered, cognizable, and provided for by our very own and independent justice system. – JOSE M. BUQUELA, jmbuquela@outlook.com
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