July 21, 2018, 5:39 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.0687 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01833 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03442 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51646 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02528 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0333 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03741 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.57108 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03151 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00707 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 32.75309 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02527 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12832 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07203 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27899 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19255 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 374.4856 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03737 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02464 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01868 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.20576 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12563 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 53.5578 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.55649 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.77142 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41506 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.32024 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11972 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.93303 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19981 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25129 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33389 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51106 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01606 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03917 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01429 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01431 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08962 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.88982 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 168.66816 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14005 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.88103 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1468 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44747 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1187 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26057 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.20183 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 269.36027 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06796 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28159 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.25963 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 813.69248 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99588 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.43547 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01325 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11107 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.8771 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.27484 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 75.70146 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.90311 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 16.83502 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.15413 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00566 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01534 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.4508 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 157.22035 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.15189 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98915 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 3.00412 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24822 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05703 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01161 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02573 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17723 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31076 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.98373 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.78638 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.80995 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15122 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.64048 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64347 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29125 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.40105 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35353 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07589 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24819 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.7153 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58586 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15284 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04293 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02753 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00719 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06114 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06073 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.39618 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0692 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.97905 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06809 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07472 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.18 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 15.95267 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07015 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14747 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25122 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33483 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16573 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02554 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0143 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.41538 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 153.38571 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.68088 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 393.68313 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16367 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.633 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24845 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.62252 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04952 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04351 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08966 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12587 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57159 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 42.49906 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49158 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.56977 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01871 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58277 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 145.09914 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 2239.05724 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 431.12608 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.04265 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04883 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.52881 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05051 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.52881 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.90591 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.67265 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24818 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 97.07258 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76955 Zimbabwe dollar

Maring, Irma, Little Rebel

TROPICAL Storm Lekima, which had formed in the western Pacific Ocean, made landfall in the Philippine island of Luzon with maximum sustained winds of 65 km/hr., bringing heavy rain that triggered flash floods and landslides. At least 10 people were killed and 3,400 were affected. [NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Hazards for September 2007, published online October 2007, retrieved on September 12, 2017 from https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/hazards/200709]

That was nearly a decade ago. Today and the past week, Hurricane Harvey dumped record-breaking rains on the Houston area of Texas and Hurricane Irma lashed Cuba and devastated the Florida Keys in the United States. Still in North America, Hurricane Jose is following Irma through the Caribbean and Hurricane Katia is tracking through parts of eastern Mexico. So many hurricanes in Trumpland now, prompting some scientists to comment how climate has worsened the impacts of Atlantic hurricanes. [Andrew King, Climate Extremes Research Fellow, University of Melbourne, “Irma and Harvey: very different storms, but both affected by climate change,” The Conversation, 12 September 2017] Incidentally, five years ago, the Donald tweeted: “The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive.” 11:15 AM – 6 Nov 2012; https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/265895292191248385?lang=en]

Here in the Philippines, Typhoon Maring was the factor behind the recent deaths of a baby boy, two teenagers and a 43-year-old Lagunense. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council had confirmed two of the deaths that was caused by a rain-induced landslide. [http://www.malaya.com.ph/business-news/news/4-dead-‘maring’] More than 50 years ago, an earlier Maring (Tropical Depression 11W) had formed in the open Pacific Ocean on 21 July 1964 but had dissipated only two days later east of the Philippines, without making landfall.

The flooding caused by the recent tropical depression is a feature of life in this Austronesian maritime country of coastal dwellers, informal settlers and kaingeros. For instance, on 22 September 1941, Manuel L. Quezon, as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, proclaimed the existence of a public calamity in the Province of Pampanga as a result of floods that had wrought havoc among the inhabitants.

As if that was not tragic enough, three months after Quezon’s Proclamation No. 753, Hirohito’s hordes invaded the Pearl of the Orient. So, is there a connection between climate change and conflict among human societies? If we agree with the Norwegian Nobel Committee and its Peace Prize awardee for 2007, then the answer must be in the affirmative.

“There are many lessons in human history which provide adequate warning about the chaos and destruction that could take place if we remain guilty of myopic indifference to the progressive erosion and decline of nature’s resources. Much has been written, for instance, about the Maya civilization, which flourished during 250–950 AD, but collapsed largely as a result of serious and prolonged drought. Even earlier, some 4000 years ago a number of well-known Bronze Age cultures also crumbled extending from the Mediterranean to the Indus Valley, including the civilizations, which had blossomed in Mesopotamia. More recent examples of societies that collapsed or faced chaos on account of depletion or degradation of natural resources include the Khmer Empire in South East Asia, Eastern Island, and several others. Changes in climate have historically determined periods of peace as well as conflict. The recent work of David Zhang has, in fact, highlighted the link between temperature fluctuations, reduced agricultural production, and the frequency of warfare in Eastern China over the last millennium.” [https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2007/ipcc-lectur...

The Asian and African mega-deltas, due to large populations and high exposure to sea level rise, are regions likely to be especially affected by climate change, with storm surges and river flooding shown to be catastrophic and possibly fatal to nations like the Maldives, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Nobel Peace Prize 2007 Lecture]

Clearly, public institutions have to upgrade their crisis and emergency management paradigms to deal with both natural and man-made hazards, recalling that on 02 December 1937, President Quezon created the National Flood Control Board to act in an advisory capacity to the government, then four years later, Quezon and the Commonwealth was embroiled in the Pacific War.

The dissonance re-echoes further with continuing news coverage of the impacts of Atlantic hurricanes in USA’s East Coast coincident with forest fires in America’s West Coast. Global warming palpable in Arizona. As well as in California where the Third Conference on WWII in the Philippines was recently held in San Francisco.

At this conference, experts and survivors from the Philippines, Canada and the United States were empaneled as a historical jury to discuss the Japanese “Hell Ships,” Tokyo’s war crimes in the Philippines and the role of the guerrillas during the Liberation of the Philippines, thereby helping American teachers make lesson plans and implementing California’s U.S. history curriculum framework for Grade 11.

The conference was sponsored by the Bataan Legacy Historical Society and the panel included Col. John Haramalis (an expert on war crimes who led a NATO Multinational Task Force against the last six internationally indicted fugitive war criminals in Bosnia), James Erickson (the leading expert on the Hell Ships), and Prof. Karganilla (from the University of the Philippines who has done extensive research on the guerrillas for the last 35 years). [http://usa.inquirer.net/6392/3rd-conference-world-war-ii-ph-set-san-fran...

Co-sponsored by Memorare Manila 1945 and the Philippine Studies Program of the University of San Francisco, this third annual conference “World War II in the Philippines” also featured Alice Benitez who not only survived Hirohito’s “sacred” war but also witnessed the activities of the guerrillas. She told the audience at the McLaren Conference Center: “I remember one time a runner warned us that there were some Japanese soldiers dropping by a store two houses away from ours. Lt. Ramsey was hastily escorted to the nipa hut at our backyard.”

“During Lt. Ramsey’s stay, there were two Americans who came frequently to our house. They were Capt. Charles Putnam and a young pilot. Capt. Putnam was the Commanding Officer of the Pangasinan-Tarlac Military District and my father was his deputy.”

“Since I was always in their midst, Capt. Putnam called me the ‘Little Rebel’.”
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