April 20, 2018, 3:12 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07053 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99923 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38677 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02467 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03841 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59228 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03034 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00724 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.62742 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02503 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13175 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06526 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26032 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18403 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 384.48243 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03837 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02421 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01858 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.41406 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12052 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 52.12791 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.7778 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.71039 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39282 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.39601 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11551 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94891 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1798 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24262 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33916 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52276 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01551 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03865 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01348 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08525 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89975 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.80584 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14089 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.95007 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15072 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45249 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11491 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24505 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.8093 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.60534 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06739 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26727 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.73862 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 806.60649 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91031 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.37565 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01361 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06171 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92145 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.32194 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.97331 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.61206 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.28442 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.40042 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01575 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25043 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.93989 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.9034 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.99693 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.50451 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22892 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05855 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01192 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02543 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17577 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31452 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94968 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.52333 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.86134 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15521 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76013 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64144 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29902 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.70175 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35007 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07459 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22915 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.87536 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59554 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14884 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01652 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02629 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00739 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06176 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06241 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21836 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06459 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.04187 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0699 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07223 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16816 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.22066 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07202 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14768 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25792 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34667 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.161 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02513 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42646 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.53351 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.79316 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 380.06338 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16804 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.89015 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22917 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.599 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04602 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04292 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07736 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12961 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56365 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.7488 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50259 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.84694 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54158 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 154.65719 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1139.831 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 437.43038 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00538 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04922 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05185 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.83983 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79931 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2292 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.66391 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.95026 Zimbabwe dollar

Noynoy Aquino’s ‘ignorance of the law’?

SOON after the Supreme Court struck down the presidential pork barrel, disguised as the Disbursement Allocation Program (DAP), as unconstitutional, President Noynoy Aquino’s defenders quickly rose to absolve him from culpability for illegally spending over a billion of the people’s money.
 
Actually, no less than President Aquino himself was the first to adamantly defend the DAP as early as October last year in an attempt to “shame his critics.” On live television, he declared: “The Disbursement Allocation Program is not pork barrel. Spending through DAP is clearly allowed by the Constitution and by other laws. DAP is only a name for a process in which the government can spend both savings and new and additional revenues...”
 
“I did not steal,” he fervently intoned. “Those who have been accused of stealing are those sowing confusion. They want to dismantle all that we have worked so hard to achieve on the straight path...I have pursued the truth and justice, dismantled the systems that breed abuse of power--- and yet I am the one being called the Pork Barrel King?”
 
What’s Aquino trying to do? Is he once again showing signs of an eminent Jesuit psychiatrist’s finding that he does not like criticisms, does not like to hear bad news, and refuses to see himself and be seen as a failure, preferring to blame others for his failures, mistakes and blunders? And is he providing himself with what’s called in corporate parlance a “golden parachute” to escape culpability for the illegal spending of millions public funds from the DAP that has now been declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court?
 
 It was clearly a futile effort on President Aquino’s part because the high tribunal magistrates, by a unanimous vote of 13-0, including the chief justice and other associate justices, who were his own appointees to the high tribunal, ruled that DAP was unconstitutional, and he may be impeached for culpable violation of the Constitution. 
 
 Of course, the President’s mouthpieces were quick to defend him. They said that what he did was done in “good faith.” And even, a former delegate to the Constitutional Convention that drafted the 1987 Constitution, who was appointed by then President Cory Cojuangco-Aquino, ascribed her son Noynoy Aquino’s lapses with the DAP to “ignorance of the law.” And, just as quickly, he added, that Aquino cannot be held liable for culpable violation of the Constitution because the violation has to be intentional, and ignorance of the law is not ground for impeachment. 
 
But the truth has finally caught with President Aquino and his defenders. As early as 2008 when he was then senator, he was already “completely aware” that converting public funds into “savings and realigning” them outside the congressional appropriations law, which is now called DAP, was illegal. 
 
In the second session of the 14th Congress, Aquino, as a member of the opposition in the Senate, principally authored Senate Bill 3121 titled “The Budget Impoundment Control Act” that sought to limit the discretionary powers of the President to realign and defer releases of funds. He sought to prohibit then President Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo from “usurping Congress’ power of the purse.” And he even sought a penalty of not less than P500,000 and perpetual disqualification from office for those would violate it once it became law. Unfortunately, his bill didn’t muster enough support from his colleagues and did not pass Senate scrutiny.
 
What Aquino denounced then as “immoral, abuse and misuse of powers,” he is now doing in the case of the DAP. From the very start, he knew that the DAP was illegal. And he knew all along about the constitutional prohibition against the President misusing and abusing the “power of the purse” that belongs to the Congress. 
 
That is why it is wrong to say, as one of his defenders put it, that Aquino’s “lapses with the DAP” were ascribed to his “ignorance of the law.” He knew what he was doing was not the right thing to do, but presidential ignorance here could be more costly because P172 billion of taxpayers’ money went into his DAP, and will probably never be seen again!
 
And so, who then should be held liable for the unconstitutional DAP? Should it be President Noynoy Aquino, who authorized and repeatedly validated it by signing all fund releases under it, or his Budget Secretary Florencio “Butch” Abad, who invented the patently illegal disbursement scheme? 
 
More than once in this column, I have noted that President Aquino’s actions during his first four years in office went from being merely offensive or damaging to actually being dangerous to our welfare. The sum of their impact collectively leaves little doubt that whether his motives were negligent or intentional, his decisions were still not trustworthy – and for this he deserves to be impeached or removed from office, on or before he bows out of his presidency two years from now in 2016. 
 
While impeaching Aquino remains far-fetched, so far, as a professor of political science at the Ateneo de Manila University put it, his critics and many others are mobilizing their resources to chip away at the political capital of the president. 
 
And so, if his impeachment is not possible because he still has both houses under his iron grip, then let all concerned Filipinos – who are witnesses to his failure to fulfil his vows to introduce government reforms, to put an end to official corruption, to eradicate poverty and to resuscitate democracy – be the final judges!
 
“Vox populi vox Dei”, so goes as an old proverb. “The voice of the people is the voice of God!”
 
***
 
Quote of the Day: “The President hears a hundred voices telling him that he is the greatest man in the country. He must listen carefully indeed to hear the one voice that tells him he is not!” – Harry S. Truman
 
Thought for Today: “A political leader knows that his friends are not always his allies, and that his adversaries are not his enemies!” – Anon.
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