August 21, 2017, 3:09 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07147 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19187 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03469 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33668 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02451 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03464 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03892 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.5756 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03242 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00733 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.60051 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01946 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02651 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13349 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06121 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01946 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2483 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19907 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 389.56996 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03888 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02447 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01877 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.5721 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12979 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 58.11442 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.13232 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01946 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.82448 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43076 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.44814 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1229 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.91224 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.13275 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25874 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34501 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45257 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01654 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03921 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0151 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01511 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08543 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.87566 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.07628 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14152 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.97957 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15221 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45349 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12172 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.20354 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.01888 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 259.9533 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07033 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.2483 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.7087 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 640.80562 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08893 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47247 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01374 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.12376 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00234 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.33721 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 79.92995 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.16852 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.51314 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.14964 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00587 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01596 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.48297 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 161.09555 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.29364 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98307 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.22611 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26095 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05932 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01208 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02661 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1842 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34588 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.01323 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.52267 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.3633 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15677 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.02471 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64623 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30142 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.93073 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34414 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08344 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25604 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 7.1006 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58844 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1538 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99066 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02661 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00749 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01946 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06301 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06168 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0504 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07069 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 108.34793 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07086 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07605 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.14343 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.06149 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07297 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1508 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26075 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1296 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15772 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02651 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01511 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43211 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 145.94279 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.8776 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 405.39601 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17027 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.02102 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25583 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64604 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04749 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04262 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06846 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13124 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58973 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.43258 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49523 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 69.99416 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01946 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.55517 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 80.17124 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19409 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 442.24558 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01985 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04832 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.84141 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05254 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.76455 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.95213 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.86379 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25581 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 100.98268 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.04223 Zimbabwe dollar

ROAD SAFETY SERIES NO. 6: Creating a most potent mix for a driving disaster

Statistics are clear. Driving under the influence (DUI) is a main cause of road crashes in the Philippines.  Although proportionally not a much as much as reckless driving or driving beyond the speed limit, we continue to hear stories, watch news reports and witness events that prove the point. 

Last year 9 percent of the road crashes in the country was caused by DUI (mostly driving intoxicated or at least under the influence of alcohol) but of that number, an estimated 211 were fatal or involved fatalities to the vehicle passengers nationwide. 

In the United States the statistics are remarkably disturbing. 

The FBI for instance reported over 1.2 million arrests in 2011 for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Authority (NHTSA) lists an estimated 32 percent of fatal car crashes involve an intoxicated driver or pedestrian, and forecasts that two in three road users will be involved in a drunk driving crash in their lifetime.

And the big story is around 29.1 million Americans admitted to driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. 

There must be greater understanding of what makes a drunk driver and how drugs or alcohol really affect driving. But there is also another perspective that needs to be looked at. How culture affects driving after drinking.

Driving involves the use of cognitive skills, rational thinking and motor skills simultaneously to make decisions and act on the eight axes that make up the points around the vehicle. Add to that the fact that the vehicle is in motion and one quickly understands the impact of DUI to driving. 

The level of the person’s attentiveness can be measured in the ability to make quick decisions and react to changes around the vehicle while executing specific operations like steering, shifting or depressing the clutch (there are 6 additional operative functions in a manual transmission vehicle versus an automatic) while keeping the eyes on the road.

These operations can never be routine, though after learning, muscle memory and familiarization can be easy to execute, they can become difficult and dangerous when even just one of the three skills mentioned above is compromised. 

With so many things happening in the mind of the driver, alcohol, drugs or any kind of distractions makes for dangerous driving.

However when you combine DUI with cultural factors—such as machismo, permissiveness and even traditions—and a potentially lethal mix is created.

Malaya Business Insight asked Psychology Today columnist and University of Texas cognitive scientist Art Markham, Ph.D about this topic. Markham has written several articles on distracted driving and DUI.

“Culture influences people’s attitudes about what is appropriate behavior when drinking,” Markman points out.  Since alcohol is a depressant it slows down the central nervous system functions, which is why many enjoy a drink or two after work to unwind. 

Markman points out that cultures can “create traditions around walking to the places where you go to drink.” This is a practice the hardworking Japanese salaryman routinely does. Japan, where the drunk driving laws are stricter—0.03 percent blood-alcohol content reading (BAC)—and mass transportation is more available, road crashes and fatalities are expectedly lower at .48 per 100K population despite higher drinking ratios.

Comparatively in Korea, where the norms are much more permissive about drinking and driving, with the same BAC, road crashes are higher at 1.28 percent per 100,000 population. 

Markman continues to say, “it can be difficult to change cultural norms. In countries where most people own their own cars, it can be difficult to persuade them to use public transportation or to take a cab or ride-share.”

This trait seems to be prevalent in the land of vodka, also with a .03 BAR, where the road crash death-to-population figure is 12.25 percent! Same goes true for many of the Central and South American
countries.

“Some countries also treat the ability to drink a lot without getting intoxicated as a sign of masculinity,” the University of Texas scientist points out. This is one of the cultural realities prevalent in the Philippines, especially in the provinces. Though no statistics exist to prove it, simply witnessing males who stagger out of a bar or a drinking session, insisting to drive a car of tricycle shows how the Pinoy male psyche defeat the safety aspect and how the machismo makes them reluctant to want to accept a ride from someone else.  

“That would be taken as a sign that someone was not able to hold their liquor,” Markham emphasizes.

“Cultures also differ in other norms like whether people are likely to argue or fight when drunk. So, the cultural practices around drinking and driving are just one example,” he concludes.

There needs to be a massive data gathering campaign in the Philippines that will do the deep research into how the Filipino drives when influenced by mind alterating or intoxicating substance. At the moment we only have Republic Act 10586 or the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013.

Penalties range from a minimum of a week to three months in jail and fines ranging from P20,000 to P80,000. If there are physical injuries directly to persons the fines are stiffer, ranging from P100,000 to P200,000. If the crash results in homicide the penalty is P300,000 to P500,000 along with imprisonment and revocation of the driver’s license.

The law also imposes the strict implementation of the allowable blood alcohol content. This implementation requires a correct ratio of distribution of breathalyzers—a problem that has not yet been solved by the assigned authorities. The Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) says it has received additional breathalyzers from the original 150 units delivered in March 2015. 

Additionally, the first batch of devices now need to be recalibrated as 6 months have passed.

(This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, Department of Transportation and Communications and VERA Files. #SafeRoadsPH )
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