May 1, 2017, 12:44 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07338 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.47153 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03551 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30767 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0267 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03576 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03996 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.62058 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03591 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00753 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.97123 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01998 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02787 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13766 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06313 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01998 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28122 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20824 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 400.00001 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03992 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02724 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01979 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.24575 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13775 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 58.71728 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.01139 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01998 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01439 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.49203 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.51329 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13587 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94126 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18054 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.28573 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36064 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45667 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01826 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04187 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01546 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01544 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08339 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.88012 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 183.86813 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14668 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.08292 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1554 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46693 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13577 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.35684 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.7015 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 266.45355 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07222 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.28482 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.5964 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 648.13188 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.12587 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.56723 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01416 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.22689 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.05694 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.34302 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 80.01199 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.22717 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.98202 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.74046 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00607 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01638 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.28332 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 163.51649 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 30.09391 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.03696 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.81818 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26693 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06091 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0124 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02813 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1977 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38132 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.11848 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.13287 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.19181 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16005 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.13467 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.69331 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30689 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.34486 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38017 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08672 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26573 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.28372 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59521 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17029 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03996 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02907 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00769 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01998 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06481 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06333 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.09251 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07709 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 111.06893 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07275 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08271 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.1388 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.36144 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07493 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15666 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.27063 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13306 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17603 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02788 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01547 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.44368 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 148.85115 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.96903 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 447.57244 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17427 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.28931 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26494 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.69131 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04823 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04623 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07099 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13406 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.60376 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 44.53547 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52997 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.76723 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01998 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56084 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 73.94606 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19929 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 454.32568 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.15265 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05182 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 11.97263 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05395 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 12 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.17123 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.99201 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26515 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 103.68632 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.23077 Zimbabwe dollar

ROAD SAFETY SERIES NO. 6: Creating a most potent mix for a driving disaster

Statistics are clear. Driving under the influence (DUI) is a main cause of road crashes in the Philippines.  Although proportionally not a much as much as reckless driving or driving beyond the speed limit, we continue to hear stories, watch news reports and witness events that prove the point. 

Last year 9 percent of the road crashes in the country was caused by DUI (mostly driving intoxicated or at least under the influence of alcohol) but of that number, an estimated 211 were fatal or involved fatalities to the vehicle passengers nationwide. 

In the United States the statistics are remarkably disturbing. 

The FBI for instance reported over 1.2 million arrests in 2011 for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Authority (NHTSA) lists an estimated 32 percent of fatal car crashes involve an intoxicated driver or pedestrian, and forecasts that two in three road users will be involved in a drunk driving crash in their lifetime.

And the big story is around 29.1 million Americans admitted to driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. 

There must be greater understanding of what makes a drunk driver and how drugs or alcohol really affect driving. But there is also another perspective that needs to be looked at. How culture affects driving after drinking.

Driving involves the use of cognitive skills, rational thinking and motor skills simultaneously to make decisions and act on the eight axes that make up the points around the vehicle. Add to that the fact that the vehicle is in motion and one quickly understands the impact of DUI to driving. 

The level of the person’s attentiveness can be measured in the ability to make quick decisions and react to changes around the vehicle while executing specific operations like steering, shifting or depressing the clutch (there are 6 additional operative functions in a manual transmission vehicle versus an automatic) while keeping the eyes on the road.

These operations can never be routine, though after learning, muscle memory and familiarization can be easy to execute, they can become difficult and dangerous when even just one of the three skills mentioned above is compromised. 

With so many things happening in the mind of the driver, alcohol, drugs or any kind of distractions makes for dangerous driving.

However when you combine DUI with cultural factors—such as machismo, permissiveness and even traditions—and a potentially lethal mix is created.

Malaya Business Insight asked Psychology Today columnist and University of Texas cognitive scientist Art Markham, Ph.D about this topic. Markham has written several articles on distracted driving and DUI.

“Culture influences people’s attitudes about what is appropriate behavior when drinking,” Markman points out.  Since alcohol is a depressant it slows down the central nervous system functions, which is why many enjoy a drink or two after work to unwind. 

Markman points out that cultures can “create traditions around walking to the places where you go to drink.” This is a practice the hardworking Japanese salaryman routinely does. Japan, where the drunk driving laws are stricter—0.03 percent blood-alcohol content reading (BAC)—and mass transportation is more available, road crashes and fatalities are expectedly lower at .48 per 100K population despite higher drinking ratios.

Comparatively in Korea, where the norms are much more permissive about drinking and driving, with the same BAC, road crashes are higher at 1.28 percent per 100,000 population. 

Markman continues to say, “it can be difficult to change cultural norms. In countries where most people own their own cars, it can be difficult to persuade them to use public transportation or to take a cab or ride-share.”

This trait seems to be prevalent in the land of vodka, also with a .03 BAR, where the road crash death-to-population figure is 12.25 percent! Same goes true for many of the Central and South American
countries.

“Some countries also treat the ability to drink a lot without getting intoxicated as a sign of masculinity,” the University of Texas scientist points out. This is one of the cultural realities prevalent in the Philippines, especially in the provinces. Though no statistics exist to prove it, simply witnessing males who stagger out of a bar or a drinking session, insisting to drive a car of tricycle shows how the Pinoy male psyche defeat the safety aspect and how the machismo makes them reluctant to want to accept a ride from someone else.  

“That would be taken as a sign that someone was not able to hold their liquor,” Markham emphasizes.

“Cultures also differ in other norms like whether people are likely to argue or fight when drunk. So, the cultural practices around drinking and driving are just one example,” he concludes.

There needs to be a massive data gathering campaign in the Philippines that will do the deep research into how the Filipino drives when influenced by mind alterating or intoxicating substance. At the moment we only have Republic Act 10586 or the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013.

Penalties range from a minimum of a week to three months in jail and fines ranging from P20,000 to P80,000. If there are physical injuries directly to persons the fines are stiffer, ranging from P100,000 to P200,000. If the crash results in homicide the penalty is P300,000 to P500,000 along with imprisonment and revocation of the driver’s license.

The law also imposes the strict implementation of the allowable blood alcohol content. This implementation requires a correct ratio of distribution of breathalyzers—a problem that has not yet been solved by the assigned authorities. The Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) says it has received additional breathalyzers from the original 150 units delivered in March 2015. 

Additionally, the first batch of devices now need to be recalibrated as 6 months have passed.

(This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, Department of Transportation and Communications and VERA Files. #SafeRoadsPH )
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