April 20, 2018, 10:49 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07053 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 1.99923 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.38677 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02467 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03418 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03841 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59228 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03034 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00724 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.62742 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02503 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13175 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06526 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26032 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18403 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 384.48243 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03837 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02421 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01858 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 11.41406 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12052 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 52.12791 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.7778 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.71039 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.39282 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.39601 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11551 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94891 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.1798 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.24262 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33916 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52276 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01551 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03865 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01348 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08525 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.89975 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 172.80584 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14089 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.95007 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15072 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45249 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.11491 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24505 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 4.8093 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 264.60534 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06739 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26727 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.73862 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 806.60649 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.91031 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.37565 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01361 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.06171 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 1.92145 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.32194 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 76.97331 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 7.61206 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.28442 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 20.40042 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00575 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01575 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.25043 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 158.93989 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 28.9034 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.99693 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.50451 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22892 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05855 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01192 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02543 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17577 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31452 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.94968 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 25.52333 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 45.86134 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15521 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.76013 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64144 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.29902 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.70175 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.35007 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07459 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22915 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.87536 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59554 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14884 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.01652 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02629 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00739 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06176 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06241 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21836 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06459 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 106.04187 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0699 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07223 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.16816 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.22066 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07202 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14768 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25792 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34667 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.161 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02513 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01349 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42646 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 146.53351 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.79316 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 380.06338 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16804 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.89015 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.22917 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.599 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04602 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04292 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07736 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12961 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.56365 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.7488 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.50259 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.84694 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0192 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.54158 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 154.65719 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 1139.831 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 437.43038 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00538 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04922 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05185 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.16881 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.83983 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.79931 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2292 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 99.66391 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 6.95026 Zimbabwe dollar

ROAD SAFETY SERIES NO. 6: Creating a most potent mix for a driving disaster

Statistics are clear. Driving under the influence (DUI) is a main cause of road crashes in the Philippines.  Although proportionally not a much as much as reckless driving or driving beyond the speed limit, we continue to hear stories, watch news reports and witness events that prove the point. 

Last year 9 percent of the road crashes in the country was caused by DUI (mostly driving intoxicated or at least under the influence of alcohol) but of that number, an estimated 211 were fatal or involved fatalities to the vehicle passengers nationwide. 

In the United States the statistics are remarkably disturbing. 

The FBI for instance reported over 1.2 million arrests in 2011 for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Authority (NHTSA) lists an estimated 32 percent of fatal car crashes involve an intoxicated driver or pedestrian, and forecasts that two in three road users will be involved in a drunk driving crash in their lifetime.

And the big story is around 29.1 million Americans admitted to driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. 

There must be greater understanding of what makes a drunk driver and how drugs or alcohol really affect driving. But there is also another perspective that needs to be looked at. How culture affects driving after drinking.

Driving involves the use of cognitive skills, rational thinking and motor skills simultaneously to make decisions and act on the eight axes that make up the points around the vehicle. Add to that the fact that the vehicle is in motion and one quickly understands the impact of DUI to driving. 

The level of the person’s attentiveness can be measured in the ability to make quick decisions and react to changes around the vehicle while executing specific operations like steering, shifting or depressing the clutch (there are 6 additional operative functions in a manual transmission vehicle versus an automatic) while keeping the eyes on the road.

These operations can never be routine, though after learning, muscle memory and familiarization can be easy to execute, they can become difficult and dangerous when even just one of the three skills mentioned above is compromised. 

With so many things happening in the mind of the driver, alcohol, drugs or any kind of distractions makes for dangerous driving.

However when you combine DUI with cultural factors—such as machismo, permissiveness and even traditions—and a potentially lethal mix is created.

Malaya Business Insight asked Psychology Today columnist and University of Texas cognitive scientist Art Markham, Ph.D about this topic. Markham has written several articles on distracted driving and DUI.

“Culture influences people’s attitudes about what is appropriate behavior when drinking,” Markman points out.  Since alcohol is a depressant it slows down the central nervous system functions, which is why many enjoy a drink or two after work to unwind. 

Markman points out that cultures can “create traditions around walking to the places where you go to drink.” This is a practice the hardworking Japanese salaryman routinely does. Japan, where the drunk driving laws are stricter—0.03 percent blood-alcohol content reading (BAC)—and mass transportation is more available, road crashes and fatalities are expectedly lower at .48 per 100K population despite higher drinking ratios.

Comparatively in Korea, where the norms are much more permissive about drinking and driving, with the same BAC, road crashes are higher at 1.28 percent per 100,000 population. 

Markman continues to say, “it can be difficult to change cultural norms. In countries where most people own their own cars, it can be difficult to persuade them to use public transportation or to take a cab or ride-share.”

This trait seems to be prevalent in the land of vodka, also with a .03 BAR, where the road crash death-to-population figure is 12.25 percent! Same goes true for many of the Central and South American
countries.

“Some countries also treat the ability to drink a lot without getting intoxicated as a sign of masculinity,” the University of Texas scientist points out. This is one of the cultural realities prevalent in the Philippines, especially in the provinces. Though no statistics exist to prove it, simply witnessing males who stagger out of a bar or a drinking session, insisting to drive a car of tricycle shows how the Pinoy male psyche defeat the safety aspect and how the machismo makes them reluctant to want to accept a ride from someone else.  

“That would be taken as a sign that someone was not able to hold their liquor,” Markham emphasizes.

“Cultures also differ in other norms like whether people are likely to argue or fight when drunk. So, the cultural practices around drinking and driving are just one example,” he concludes.

There needs to be a massive data gathering campaign in the Philippines that will do the deep research into how the Filipino drives when influenced by mind alterating or intoxicating substance. At the moment we only have Republic Act 10586 or the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013.

Penalties range from a minimum of a week to three months in jail and fines ranging from P20,000 to P80,000. If there are physical injuries directly to persons the fines are stiffer, ranging from P100,000 to P200,000. If the crash results in homicide the penalty is P300,000 to P500,000 along with imprisonment and revocation of the driver’s license.

The law also imposes the strict implementation of the allowable blood alcohol content. This implementation requires a correct ratio of distribution of breathalyzers—a problem that has not yet been solved by the assigned authorities. The Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) says it has received additional breathalyzers from the original 150 units delivered in March 2015. 

Additionally, the first batch of devices now need to be recalibrated as 6 months have passed.

(This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, Department of Transportation and Communications and VERA Files. #SafeRoadsPH )
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