June 26, 2017, 1:28 am
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07443 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.4017 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03628 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.32436 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02723 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03626 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04054 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.63579 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03534 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00763 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 34.60377 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02027 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02797 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13904 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06579 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02027 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.30624 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20692 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 405.75598 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04049 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02733 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01952 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 13.57175 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13799 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 58.59343 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 11.43535 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02027 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.98075 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.47231 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.59951 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13357 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.95278 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19181 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.28109 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36583 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.46433 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01797 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04244 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01573 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01572 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08685 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.91021 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 182.75233 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1491 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 4.14512 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15784 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.47422 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13229 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.24625 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.54195 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 269.57844 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07211 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.30521 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 23.93595 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 657.62059 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 1.9771 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.6139 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01433 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.23666 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0906 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.38113 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 81.57681 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 9.12404 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 18.24078 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 22.6366 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00614 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01662 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.364 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 166.08836 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 30.51277 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 3.08877 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 1.84435 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25922 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06179 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01258 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02821 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.19642 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36735 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.09972 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 27.52331 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 48.27726 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16258 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 7.25578 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.70024 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.31394 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 14.54094 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.37863 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08672 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.2604 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.52615 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.59972 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17055 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.08654 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02835 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00779 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02027 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06622 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06654 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.11897 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0753 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 112.82935 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0738 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08196 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.14766 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.61897 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.076 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16004 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26836 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13498 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17451 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02797 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01573 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45006 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 152.00649 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 11.08634 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 435.85326 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.17678 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 10.43737 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26014 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.6897 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04917 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04647 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0711 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13537 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.61011 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 45.17633 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.53223 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 72.78071 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02027 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.57377 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 77.82732 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20216 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 459.54601 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18241 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05201 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 11.77483 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05472 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 11.82205 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 2.13174 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 5.06546 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25921 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 105.17835 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.33482 Zimbabwe dollar

ROAD SAFETY SERIES NO. 6: Creating a most potent mix for a driving disaster

Statistics are clear. Driving under the influence (DUI) is a main cause of road crashes in the Philippines.  Although proportionally not a much as much as reckless driving or driving beyond the speed limit, we continue to hear stories, watch news reports and witness events that prove the point. 

Last year 9 percent of the road crashes in the country was caused by DUI (mostly driving intoxicated or at least under the influence of alcohol) but of that number, an estimated 211 were fatal or involved fatalities to the vehicle passengers nationwide. 

In the United States the statistics are remarkably disturbing. 

The FBI for instance reported over 1.2 million arrests in 2011 for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Authority (NHTSA) lists an estimated 32 percent of fatal car crashes involve an intoxicated driver or pedestrian, and forecasts that two in three road users will be involved in a drunk driving crash in their lifetime.

And the big story is around 29.1 million Americans admitted to driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. 

There must be greater understanding of what makes a drunk driver and how drugs or alcohol really affect driving. But there is also another perspective that needs to be looked at. How culture affects driving after drinking.

Driving involves the use of cognitive skills, rational thinking and motor skills simultaneously to make decisions and act on the eight axes that make up the points around the vehicle. Add to that the fact that the vehicle is in motion and one quickly understands the impact of DUI to driving. 

The level of the person’s attentiveness can be measured in the ability to make quick decisions and react to changes around the vehicle while executing specific operations like steering, shifting or depressing the clutch (there are 6 additional operative functions in a manual transmission vehicle versus an automatic) while keeping the eyes on the road.

These operations can never be routine, though after learning, muscle memory and familiarization can be easy to execute, they can become difficult and dangerous when even just one of the three skills mentioned above is compromised. 

With so many things happening in the mind of the driver, alcohol, drugs or any kind of distractions makes for dangerous driving.

However when you combine DUI with cultural factors—such as machismo, permissiveness and even traditions—and a potentially lethal mix is created.

Malaya Business Insight asked Psychology Today columnist and University of Texas cognitive scientist Art Markham, Ph.D about this topic. Markham has written several articles on distracted driving and DUI.

“Culture influences people’s attitudes about what is appropriate behavior when drinking,” Markman points out.  Since alcohol is a depressant it slows down the central nervous system functions, which is why many enjoy a drink or two after work to unwind. 

Markman points out that cultures can “create traditions around walking to the places where you go to drink.” This is a practice the hardworking Japanese salaryman routinely does. Japan, where the drunk driving laws are stricter—0.03 percent blood-alcohol content reading (BAC)—and mass transportation is more available, road crashes and fatalities are expectedly lower at .48 per 100K population despite higher drinking ratios.

Comparatively in Korea, where the norms are much more permissive about drinking and driving, with the same BAC, road crashes are higher at 1.28 percent per 100,000 population. 

Markman continues to say, “it can be difficult to change cultural norms. In countries where most people own their own cars, it can be difficult to persuade them to use public transportation or to take a cab or ride-share.”

This trait seems to be prevalent in the land of vodka, also with a .03 BAR, where the road crash death-to-population figure is 12.25 percent! Same goes true for many of the Central and South American
countries.

“Some countries also treat the ability to drink a lot without getting intoxicated as a sign of masculinity,” the University of Texas scientist points out. This is one of the cultural realities prevalent in the Philippines, especially in the provinces. Though no statistics exist to prove it, simply witnessing males who stagger out of a bar or a drinking session, insisting to drive a car of tricycle shows how the Pinoy male psyche defeat the safety aspect and how the machismo makes them reluctant to want to accept a ride from someone else.  

“That would be taken as a sign that someone was not able to hold their liquor,” Markham emphasizes.

“Cultures also differ in other norms like whether people are likely to argue or fight when drunk. So, the cultural practices around drinking and driving are just one example,” he concludes.

There needs to be a massive data gathering campaign in the Philippines that will do the deep research into how the Filipino drives when influenced by mind alterating or intoxicating substance. At the moment we only have Republic Act 10586 or the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013.

Penalties range from a minimum of a week to three months in jail and fines ranging from P20,000 to P80,000. If there are physical injuries directly to persons the fines are stiffer, ranging from P100,000 to P200,000. If the crash results in homicide the penalty is P300,000 to P500,000 along with imprisonment and revocation of the driver’s license.

The law also imposes the strict implementation of the allowable blood alcohol content. This implementation requires a correct ratio of distribution of breathalyzers—a problem that has not yet been solved by the assigned authorities. The Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) says it has received additional breathalyzers from the original 150 units delivered in March 2015. 

Additionally, the first batch of devices now need to be recalibrated as 6 months have passed.

(This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, Department of Transportation and Communications and VERA Files. #SafeRoadsPH )
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