October 22, 2017, 9:33 pm
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1 Philippine Peso = 0.07128 UAE Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 2.18168 Albanian Lek
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0346 Neth Antilles Guilder
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33849 Argentine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02474 Australian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03455 Aruba Florin
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03882 Barbados Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.59705 Bangladesh Taka
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03208 Bulgarian Lev
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00732 Bahraini Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 33.78397 Burundi Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Bermuda Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02639 Brunei Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.13315 Bolivian Boliviano
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06146 Brazilian Real
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Bahamian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26213 Bhutan Ngultrum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.20042 Botswana Pula
1 Philippine Peso = 388.58696 Belarus Ruble
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03878 Belize Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02429 Canadian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01906 Swiss Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 12.12442 Chilean Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1285 Chinese Yuan
1 Philippine Peso = 56.61879 Colombian Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 10.99029 Costa Rica Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Cuban Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 1.81172 Cape Verde Escudo
1 Philippine Peso = 0.42217 Czech Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 3.44992 Djibouti Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12229 Danish Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 0.91751 Dominican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.21396 Algerian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.25699 Estonian Kroon
1 Philippine Peso = 0.34161 Egyptian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.52232 Ethiopian Birr
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01642 Euro
1 Philippine Peso = 0.03984 Fiji Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01474 Falkland Islands Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01481 British Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08518 Ghanaian Cedi
1 Philippine Peso = 0.91421 Gambian Dalasi
1 Philippine Peso = 174.2236 Guinea Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.14253 Guatemala Quetzal
1 Philippine Peso = 3.96933 Guyana Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15143 Hong Kong Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.45421 Honduras Lempira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12329 Croatian Kuna
1 Philippine Peso = 1.19002 Haiti Gourde
1 Philippine Peso = 5.04988 Hungarian Forint
1 Philippine Peso = 262.46118 Indonesian Rupiah
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06762 Israeli Shekel
1 Philippine Peso = 1.26145 Indian Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 22.63199 Iraqi Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 665.74146 Iran Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03707 Iceland Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 2.46487 Jamaican Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01373 Jordanian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 2.19732 Japanese Yen
1 Philippine Peso = 2.00019 Kenyan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 1.33191 Kyrgyzstan Som
1 Philippine Peso = 78.26087 Cambodia Riel
1 Philippine Peso = 8.11083 Comoros Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 17.46894 North Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 21.96991 Korean Won
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00585 Kuwaiti Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01592 Cayman Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.49204 Kazakhstan Tenge
1 Philippine Peso = 160.69488 Lao Kip
1 Philippine Peso = 29.21972 Lebanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 2.98137 Sri Lanka Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 2.29173 Liberian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26378 Lesotho Loti
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05918 Lithuanian Lita
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01204 Latvian Lat
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02652 Libyan Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.18258 Moroccan Dirham
1 Philippine Peso = 0.33463 Moldovan Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.00621 Macedonian Denar
1 Philippine Peso = 26.37811 Myanmar Kyat
1 Philippine Peso = 47.47671 Mongolian Tugrik
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15597 Macau Pataca
1 Philippine Peso = 6.84045 Mauritania Ougulya
1 Philippine Peso = 0.65703 Mauritius Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.30221 Maldives Rufiyaa
1 Philippine Peso = 13.90062 Malawi Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 0.36633 Mexican Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 0.08199 Malaysian Ringgit
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26335 Namibian Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 6.8323 Nigerian Naira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58773 Nicaragua Cordoba
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15441 Norwegian Krone
1 Philippine Peso = 2.0099 Nepalese Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.02778 New Zealand Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.00746 Omani Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 Panama Balboa
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06268 Peruvian Nuevo Sol
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06206 Papua New Guinea Kina
1 Philippine Peso = 1 Philippine Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 2.03901 Pakistani Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.06957 Polish Zloty
1 Philippine Peso = 109.45264 Paraguayan Guarani
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07337 Qatar Rial
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0755 Romanian New Leu
1 Philippine Peso = 1.11374 Russian Rouble
1 Philippine Peso = 16.1349 Rwanda Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07279 Saudi Arabian Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15088 Solomon Islands Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26054 Seychelles Rupee
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12926 Sudanese Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.15816 Swedish Krona
1 Philippine Peso = 0.0264 Singapore Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01475 St Helena Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.43102 Slovak Koruna
1 Philippine Peso = 147.90373 Sierra Leone Leone
1 Philippine Peso = 10.81134 Somali Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 402.56018 Sao Tome Dobra
1 Philippine Peso = 0.16984 El Salvador Colon
1 Philippine Peso = 9.99573 Syrian Pound
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26335 Swaziland Lilageni
1 Philippine Peso = 0.64344 Thai Baht
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04808 Tunisian Dinar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04338 Tongan paʻanga
1 Philippine Peso = 0.07108 Turkish Lira
1 Philippine Peso = 0.12963 Trinidad Tobago Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.58637 Taiwan Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 43.42003 Tanzanian Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.51417 Ukraine Hryvnia
1 Philippine Peso = 70.78804 Ugandan Shilling
1 Philippine Peso = 0.01941 United States Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 0.5722 Uruguayan New Peso
1 Philippine Peso = 155.95885 Uzbekistan Sum
1 Philippine Peso = 0.1936 Venezuelan Bolivar
1 Philippine Peso = 440.93556 Vietnam Dong
1 Philippine Peso = 2.02426 Vanuatu Vatu
1 Philippine Peso = 0.04922 Samoa Tala
1 Philippine Peso = 10.76747 CFA Franc (BEAC)
1 Philippine Peso = 0.05241 East Caribbean Dollar
1 Philippine Peso = 10.69488 CFA Franc (BCEAO)
1 Philippine Peso = 1.94759 Pacific Franc
1 Philippine Peso = 4.85151 Yemen Riyal
1 Philippine Peso = 0.26339 South African Rand
1 Philippine Peso = 100.72787 Zambian Kwacha
1 Philippine Peso = 7.02446 Zimbabwe dollar

ROAD SAFETY SERIES NO. 6: Creating a most potent mix for a driving disaster

Statistics are clear. Driving under the influence (DUI) is a main cause of road crashes in the Philippines.  Although proportionally not a much as much as reckless driving or driving beyond the speed limit, we continue to hear stories, watch news reports and witness events that prove the point. 

Last year 9 percent of the road crashes in the country was caused by DUI (mostly driving intoxicated or at least under the influence of alcohol) but of that number, an estimated 211 were fatal or involved fatalities to the vehicle passengers nationwide. 

In the United States the statistics are remarkably disturbing. 

The FBI for instance reported over 1.2 million arrests in 2011 for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Authority (NHTSA) lists an estimated 32 percent of fatal car crashes involve an intoxicated driver or pedestrian, and forecasts that two in three road users will be involved in a drunk driving crash in their lifetime.

And the big story is around 29.1 million Americans admitted to driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. 

There must be greater understanding of what makes a drunk driver and how drugs or alcohol really affect driving. But there is also another perspective that needs to be looked at. How culture affects driving after drinking.

Driving involves the use of cognitive skills, rational thinking and motor skills simultaneously to make decisions and act on the eight axes that make up the points around the vehicle. Add to that the fact that the vehicle is in motion and one quickly understands the impact of DUI to driving. 

The level of the person’s attentiveness can be measured in the ability to make quick decisions and react to changes around the vehicle while executing specific operations like steering, shifting or depressing the clutch (there are 6 additional operative functions in a manual transmission vehicle versus an automatic) while keeping the eyes on the road.

These operations can never be routine, though after learning, muscle memory and familiarization can be easy to execute, they can become difficult and dangerous when even just one of the three skills mentioned above is compromised. 

With so many things happening in the mind of the driver, alcohol, drugs or any kind of distractions makes for dangerous driving.

However when you combine DUI with cultural factors—such as machismo, permissiveness and even traditions—and a potentially lethal mix is created.

Malaya Business Insight asked Psychology Today columnist and University of Texas cognitive scientist Art Markham, Ph.D about this topic. Markham has written several articles on distracted driving and DUI.

“Culture influences people’s attitudes about what is appropriate behavior when drinking,” Markman points out.  Since alcohol is a depressant it slows down the central nervous system functions, which is why many enjoy a drink or two after work to unwind. 

Markman points out that cultures can “create traditions around walking to the places where you go to drink.” This is a practice the hardworking Japanese salaryman routinely does. Japan, where the drunk driving laws are stricter—0.03 percent blood-alcohol content reading (BAC)—and mass transportation is more available, road crashes and fatalities are expectedly lower at .48 per 100K population despite higher drinking ratios.

Comparatively in Korea, where the norms are much more permissive about drinking and driving, with the same BAC, road crashes are higher at 1.28 percent per 100,000 population. 

Markman continues to say, “it can be difficult to change cultural norms. In countries where most people own their own cars, it can be difficult to persuade them to use public transportation or to take a cab or ride-share.”

This trait seems to be prevalent in the land of vodka, also with a .03 BAR, where the road crash death-to-population figure is 12.25 percent! Same goes true for many of the Central and South American
countries.

“Some countries also treat the ability to drink a lot without getting intoxicated as a sign of masculinity,” the University of Texas scientist points out. This is one of the cultural realities prevalent in the Philippines, especially in the provinces. Though no statistics exist to prove it, simply witnessing males who stagger out of a bar or a drinking session, insisting to drive a car of tricycle shows how the Pinoy male psyche defeat the safety aspect and how the machismo makes them reluctant to want to accept a ride from someone else.  

“That would be taken as a sign that someone was not able to hold their liquor,” Markham emphasizes.

“Cultures also differ in other norms like whether people are likely to argue or fight when drunk. So, the cultural practices around drinking and driving are just one example,” he concludes.

There needs to be a massive data gathering campaign in the Philippines that will do the deep research into how the Filipino drives when influenced by mind alterating or intoxicating substance. At the moment we only have Republic Act 10586 or the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013.

Penalties range from a minimum of a week to three months in jail and fines ranging from P20,000 to P80,000. If there are physical injuries directly to persons the fines are stiffer, ranging from P100,000 to P200,000. If the crash results in homicide the penalty is P300,000 to P500,000 along with imprisonment and revocation of the driver’s license.

The law also imposes the strict implementation of the allowable blood alcohol content. This implementation requires a correct ratio of distribution of breathalyzers—a problem that has not yet been solved by the assigned authorities. The Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) says it has received additional breathalyzers from the original 150 units delivered in March 2015. 

Additionally, the first batch of devices now need to be recalibrated as 6 months have passed.

(This story was produced under the Bloomberg Initiative Global Road Safety Media Fellowship implemented by the World Health Organization, Department of Transportation and Communications and VERA Files. #SafeRoadsPH )
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